30 March 2013

Stephen Tobin- Ch:13- Irish Roots


Stephen Tobin, son of John Tobin and Elizabeth Brien/O'Brien, was born in 1825 in Newcastle, County Tipperary, Barony of Iffa and Offa West, Civil Parish of Templetenny or Newcastle, Poor Law Union of Clogheen, Province of Munster, Ireland.
His wife Mary Driscoll was the daughter of Timothy Driscoll of Co. Cork and Mary White of the Cork/Tipperary border area.
The origins of the four surnames will be briefly outlined.


This surname derives from  St. Aubyn-du-Thenny in Upper Normandy, France, first called de St Albino or St Aubyn (St Alban), a very tiny village north west of Paris. Following the Norman Conquest it  is thought that in England in the early 1100's, they established a caput (chief manor house) called Place Barton at Ashton in Devon, the heiress of which married Sir John St Aubyns. Sir John was the heir of the St Aubyns family of St. Aubyn-du-Thenny in Normandy and was possessed of the considerable estates of Pickwell, Georgeham, Berynarber and Paracombe in north Devon. Place Barton  became the seat of the Chudleighs in the 14th century.

'A' marks St-Aubyn-du-Thenny in Normandy, France

In 1204, William de Santo Albino (gaelic) or de St Aubyn was one of the early Norman settlers who was granted lands around Kells in County Kilkenny. He was described as Lord of Stamacharty (Stonecarthy, barony of Kells).
William also possessed lands in Slieveadagh in County Tipperary. His descendants held ½ knight fee in Killamery in the 13th century and after. They soon acquired nearby Ballagh which became Ballytobin, and about the same time became lords of Cumsy (Cumsinagh) in Co. Tipperary, where some still exist today. The Tobins became so influential in Co. Tipperary that in mediaeval times the head of the family was known as Baron of Coursey (not an official title). Clyn in his Annals, stated that in the 14th century the Tobins were a turbulent sept more dreaded by the English settlers than the native Irish.
The first recorded spelling of the surname as 'Tobin' or  'Tóibin'  in  Gaelic,  was in 1350 in "Medieval  Records of Co. Kilkenny" during the reign of Edward III.

Several Tobins of Cumsy married into the chief Norman family in Southern Ireland, the powerful Butler clan that virtually ruled Ireland for 600 years -the Ormond, Mountgarrett and Dunboyne  lines, and other junior Butler lines.

From these bases William's descendants soon mushroomed, and by the 1440’s, there were three major Tobin clans established in S.E. Tipperary, in addition to the senior line in Kilkenny.
The three families held many townlands in Tipperary and Kilkenny.
By the early 1300’s the family had already formed a lineage or clan in Tipperary and often were ‘beyond the law’ in their attacks on other colonists there.

Tobins, known as Barons of Cumsey, had land crossing the line between Tipperary and Kilkenny.
Thomas Tobin of Killaghy, the head of the family, was granted the land, April 20th 1540. (Killaghy near Mulliahone, Tipperary.)
Ballytobin is near Callan, Kilkenny.

Two other cadet families were:
Tobin of Kilnagranag- first leader, Walter Mor Tobin;
Richard Tobin I of Caherlesk 1541

Tobins also spread to Waterford and Cork.

Castletobin -- site of an early Anglo-Norman enclosure [ringfort] of the Tobin family, who were given large grants of land in the Callan area at an early date. The castle stump still remains according to O'Kelly. Location: townland of Castletobin, parish of Callan.

The families lost their lands in the Cromwellian settlements and were relocated to Counties Mayo and Gallway (Ballymoe) in about 1656.

For more thorough information on the Tobin history in Ireland, see the website:
http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~irlkik/ksurnam2.htm-  go to Tobin and click on Tobin History written by Dennis Walsh

Tobin Crest or Standard

The crest or standard is either royal blue with three white oak leaves or three azure blue leaves. The motto inscribed in Latin is Noli me Tangere, which translates as “Do not touch me”. It originated from the House of Killaghy, in Co. Tipperary. Killaghy was the name of the castle, where the main Tobin line lived for over 450 years, until Cromwell defeated Ireland and they were disposed of their family home.



The surname Driscoll comes from the Irish O hEidirsceoil, grandson of Eidirsceol (from eidirsceol, meaning “go-between” of “bearer of news”); the name is a compound Gaelic word derived from ‘Idhir’ meaning ‘between or intervening’, and ‘intermediary’ or a ‘go between’; and ‘sgeal’ means ‘a statement or story’; thereby together they read ‘Idhir Sgeal’ or O’Driscoll. The name translated means ‘descended from the interpreter’.
They were a Sept possessed of Bearra, now the Barony of Beare, in the County of Cork, from which they derived their surname from Eidersceoil, Chief of Bearra.

Map of Cork

County Cork was part of the ancient kingdom of Desmumhan, and home to pre-Milesian (viz. descended from Milesius of Spain whose sons invaded and possessed Ireland 1000 yrs BC) tribes of Fir Bolg or Erainn, such as the Corcu Lóegde. They were Celts who were settled in Ireland well before the arrival of the Gaels. Before the eighth century, Cork was populated mainly by tribes of Erainn descent, including the Corcu Lóegde tribal grouping.

By the 9th century, Milesian tribes of the Eóganacht dominated much of the area and the Corcu Lóegde were pushed into SW Cork, into an area which later became part of the diocese of Ross, roughly defined by the towns of Roscarbery, Skibbereen, Schull and Baltimore. The first mention of a name resembling Driscoll in the Annals of Inisfallen wherein the death of Conchobar Uí hEtersceóil in 1103 is reported. He was the king of Corcu Lóegde.

O'Driscoll territory in the 1500's

For the next 500 years the O’Driscoll were a powerful family. They were a seafaring people engaged in fishing, trading and piracy, as their lands consisted mainly of rocky peninsulas and islands not suitable for farming. They constructed a number of great castles, the ruins of which can still be seen. Baltimore became the seat of the family and gets its name from their castle of great house (Baile an Tighe Mór). 

In 1213 the O’Driscolls moved into the Bearra peninsula only to be taken over by the O’Sullivans two to three hundred years later. In the 16th century there were two branches of the Corcu Lóegde: the O’Driscoll Mór of Collymore and the O’Driscoll Óg of Collybeg. They gained a reputation for their ferocity, from their constant fight against the encroaching Eoghanancht, Anglo-Normans and the English, however this became a losing battle and the family struggled to retain their lands and power, and were ultimately completely dispossessed.

They would lose their lands to the English monarchs in the 17th century, and became tenants of their forefathers’ lands in SW Cork. However, the family and the name remain inextricably linked to their old homeland, and even today, the majority of Driscolls still live in SW Cork.

Blazon of Arms: Argent, an ancient galley, sails furled sable (black).
TranslationArgent (white) denotes Peace and Sincerity. The galley is symbolic of
Venture to foreign lands. The sable furled sails signify Constancy.
Crest: A cormorant proper (the emblem of charity)

William Casey, a Skibbereen historian and genealogist, wrote the following in his paper
on “Aughadown House”;
“From ancient times the O’Driscoll’s ruled much of West Cork. Over the
centuries the O’Driscolls’ power and land was reduced by the arrival of other Irish septs
such as the O’Mahony’s, the O’Donovan’s, the McCarthy’s and the O’Sullivan’s. By the
1400’s the fiefdom of the O’Driscoll’s was reduced to an area bordering both sides of the
Ilen River. This included Collybeg, an area on the west side of the Ilen River, which
roughly equates to the civil parish of Aughadown. The east side is called Collymore.
Despite the loss of territory, the 1400’s were good for the O’Driscolls. They earned huge
revenue by the selling of fishing rights in Roaringwater Bay. This prosperity coincided
with a building boom which included a number of O’Driscoll castles and the friary on
Sherkin Island. Collybeg appears to have been the ‘poor relation’ with just one castle at
The 1500’s saw a turn in fortunes for the O’Driscolls. In 1537, the conclusion of a long
feud with the city of Waterford, brought disaster. In revenge for the looting of a
Portuguese ship bound for Waterford, the men of that city raided O’Driscoll territory
and, using cannon, they damaged or destroyed many important buildings including the
O’Driscoll headquarters in Baltimore(Dun na Sead – the fort of jewels).
However, the greatest challenge facing the O’Driscolls, and indeed the whole of Gaelic
Ireland, was the growing influence of the Tudor monarchs over Ireland. Wishing to
control Ireland and to introduce English laws and customs, the English devised the policy
of ‘surrender and regrant’. Under this system, Irish chieftains could surrender their land
and titles held under Irish law and in return were granted back their lands and given
English titles. Thereafter, they would be bound by English law. In 1573 the new
O’Driscoll chieftain, Fineen, took up the English offer and became Sir Fineen
O’Driscoll. He is commonly remembered by his nickname ‘Fineen the Rover’.
For those who chose to resist English rule, the punishments were harsh. A clear example
of this was the policy adopted by the English after the failed Desmond rebellion of the
1580’s. The lands of the Earl of Desmond and his allies, including the O’Mahonys of

Kinalmeaky, were confiscated and given to English colonists. The new landowners
undertook to settle or ‘plant’ English on the confiscated land, thus these attempts to
supplant the native Irish with English settlers became known as ‘plantations’.
During the Desmond rebellion the O’Driscolls remained a loyal ally to the English, and
their position was relatively secure. However, this would not continue.
The demise of their territorial power occurred at the end of the Elizabethan-Irish
wars, which resulted in the Irish defeat at Kinsale in 1601. The O’Driscoll clan lands
were passed over to Lord Castlehaven by the victors.”
Later in the article it states in part;
“In 1601 a Spanish fleet landed in West Cork. Its intention was to aid the O’Neill
rebellion. It appears the personal inclination of Fineen O’Driscoll was not to rebel.
However, with a Spanish garrison stationed at the O’Driscoll castle in Castlehaven and
with the urging of his family and his neighbours, the O’Driscoll chief joined the other
local Irish chieftains in rebellion. The defeat of the Irish and Spanish forces in the Battle
of Kinsale had an immediate and disastrous impact on the local chieftains. The English,
under George Carew, brutally suppressed the rebellion in West Cork and the lands of the
rebels were confiscated. While Fineen O’Driscoll received a personal pardon, much of
the O’Driscolls’ power and land were lost forever. A large part of the O’Driscoll land
ended up in the possession of a Cork merchant and land speculator named Walter
Coppinger, who in turn rented parts of it to English settlers.
The land confiscations in West Cork opened up opportunities for new plantations.”

Over the centuries, the dispossessed O'Driscolls gained much notoriety for their exploits around the port of Baltimore.

In another article by William Casey, entitled the “Finn Family History” it states in part;
“The parish of Aughadown forms part of the ancient fiefdom of the O’Driscoll
clan, whose headquarters was at Baltimore. The power and the riches of the O’Driscoll’s
reached their height during the 15th and 16th centuries when they sold fishing rights to
Spanish and other Continental fishing boats, to the rich fishing grounds off the West Cork
coast. They survived and prospered during the turmoil of sixteenth century Ireland by
remaining on friendly terms with the English despite disputes with the rulers of
Waterford City and accusations of piracy made against them by English officials. The
dawn of the seventeenth century saw a dramatic change of fortunes for the O’Driscolls’.
They sided with the Spanish against the English during the Battle of Kinsale in 1601. The
defeat of the Irish and Spanish armies broke forever the power of the Irish chieftains of
West Cork. Over the following decades the ownership of the land of West Cork fell into
the hands of English Adventurers and Planters who differed from the native Irish, not
only in race, but also in religion. Despite the passage of centuries, the gap between the
new Anglo-Irish landowner and their native Irish tenants would never be bridged.”


Recommended reading:  the book by Ó Murchadha, D. Family Names of County Cork, Collins Press, 1998.


Originating from the Dalcassian clan, known as the Ui Toirdealbhaigh, which was not of outstanding importance in the area of Thomond, the Sept rose to the High Kingship of Ireland under the leadership of Brian Boru from whom they took the surname O’Brien, dividing into several branches and possessing a great part of Munster, of which they were frequently kings. The name is so common that it comes sixth in the statistical list relating to Irish surnames. For a time, like all Irish names the O was dropped, but now it is rarely found without the prefix O. (The O means ‘descendant of’)
Brian Boru (941-1014) had a remarkable career as High King of Ireland. A brilliant leader, warrior and tactician, he finally died on the field at the battle of Clontarf when the Norsemen were finally subdued. The first O’Brien to adopt the surname was Donagh Cairbre (1194-1242) son of Donal who submitted to Henry II. The main line, from Brian Boru, have been peers of the realm under three titles- Earls and marquises of Thomond, Barons and Earls of Inchiquin and Viscounts Clare, and have all played a prominent part in Irish history through the centuries.

Recommended reading: Morgan Llewelyn, Lion of Ireland, 1981


The White family from England came over to Ireland with the invasion in 1171, with Walter White and his brother William. They were followed by other branches from England, Wales and Scotland down through the centuries, and were common in many counties in southern Ireland. The Whites of Leixlip Co. Kildare were closely associated with the Ormond Butler line, acting as stewards for the Earl of Ormond. They intermarried with numerous prominent Anglo-Norman families, including Hamilton of Abercorn, Dillon of Costello-Gallen, Butler of Galmoy, Moore of Drogheda, Taaffe of Carlingford, etc, and held prestigious positions such as Master of the Rolls. 

Whites were also common in the counties of Waterford and Wexford for many centuries, many as descendants of the Leixlip line.

Coat of Arms for White of Ireland
Argent/White of Silver denotes Peace and Sincerity
Gules/Red- the Martyr's colour, signifies military, fortitude and magnamity
The Chevron (triangular shape) denotes Protection, often granted as a reward to one who has achieved some notable enterprise
Engrailed Line/Invecked line signifies Earth or Land
Red Rose signifies Beauty and Grace

Origins of the Whites:

The following information on the origins of the White family is taken from Volume 9- Notes & Queries of the Waterford & S.E. Ireland Archaelogical Society Journal.
The family of White originally crossed to England from Saxony in the 5th century, and were then known as Vitus, Wite, or Weight (Bede). They held a distinguished position in Wales in the reign of Henry II., where Ethebert Whyte governed the southern province as Justiciary or Proconsul. His son, Chevalier Gautier White, and his brothers assisted “Strongbow," Earl of Pembroke, in the invasion of Ireland. The Whyte family established themselves in Co. Waterford and different parts of Ireland (Abbe MacGeoghan, History of Ireland, Ancient and Modern, pub 1758-63)). Sir Nicholas White, Master of the Rolls, in reign of Queen Elizabeth, and owner at that time of Duncannon Castle
There is a pedigree of Sir Nicholas White's family in the College of Arms, London, with White crest and coat of arms (hand and dagger as crest, coat of arms a chev., gu. between three roses).”

Historical and Topographical Notes etc. on Buttevant, Castletownroche, Doneraile, Mallow and places in their vicinity, by Colonel James Grove White. pub. Cork, Guy and Company, 1906-1915. Book 3- White of Kilburne p231+
 “Origin of the noble family of Whites of Ireland” by Ware (pub. 1762).
The Knight ‘Ware’, printed under his dictation in London in
1657, gives the origin to the many Whites in Britain and Ireland. The Venerable Bede in his History of the Nation Eclessiastique Angloise:
…. of Germanic tribes populis fortioribus is of Saxonibus, Anglis, Vitis
(…. of Germanic tribes is of powerful nations of the Saxons, Angles, and Vites.)
Ware concludes that White is a Saxon name derived from "Vitus, Wite or Weight, according different variations in arrivals this name since the establishment of Vites in England at the beginning of the fifth century”
The Family of White came to Ireland with Strongbow in the year 1170, and distributed themselves in different parts of the Island. The branch from which the "Whites of Kilbyrne" are descended, remained in the County of Waterford, settling in the City of Waterford, in Clonmel, near Dromana, and other localities.
A pedigree, entitled "White of Waterford" (1235 Philip White of Mocollop Co Waterford) having the same armorial bearings as that borne by the White Family of Kilbyrne, is preserved in the Ulster Office, Dublin. It commences at the time of Strongbow, and ends with Nicholas White of Kingsmeadow, Co. Waterford, grandfather of Sir Nicholas White, Master of the Rolls in reign of Queen Elizabeth.
The origin of the Family is given by Monsieur l'Abbe MacGeoghegan, in a work published at Amsterdam in the year 1758-63 (History of Ireland, Ancient and Modern”, of which the following is an extract, and which shows that the family originated from a Saxon tribe named " V i t u s , " established in England in the fifth century.

Sir Gautier (Walter) Whyte removed with his brother into Ireland in the reign of Henry II., his father being Governor and Justice of South Wales. 
From Sir Walter Whyte are descended the different Families of White throughout Ireland.

Burkes Genealogical & Heraldic History 4th Edition 1958:

Whyte of Loughbrickland – pp.762/63

Lineage- the following is derived partly from a pedigree registered in Ulster Office 1765 (Gen. Off. Dublin Castle MS 165 Reg. Peds. Vol II, pp14-20)

Walter Whyte with several of his brothers, accompanied Strongbow on his expedition to Ireland in 1170 and was knighted by Henry II in Dublin 1171. He accompanied John de Courcy to Downpatrick in 1177 and having taken a leading part in the subsequent conquest of Ulster was rewarded with large grants of land on the west shore of Strangford Lough. He was one of the five barons of Ulster created by de Courcy as Earl Palatine of Ulster. His descendants were known as the Lords of Duffrye and built castles at Ballymorran, Killinchy, Raynhaddye and Ring dufferin. His eldest son:
Sir James Whyte, served under Richard I in the Holy Wars 1191-92. He m. Amicie de Beaumont, dau of the Earl of Leicester, and had issue,
Sir Balthazar Whyte who supported King John during his expedition to Ireland when the King stayed at Ballymorran Castle in July 1210. He had issue,
Sir James Whyte, who had issue,
Maurice Whyte, m. a de Lacy of Lecale and had issue,
Walter Whyte who, with his brother Wadenus and his kinsman the de Lacys, joined Bruce in his invasion of Irealnd 1315-18. He m. the sister of John de Mandeville of Killeagh Castle and had, with other issue,
Nicholas Whyte, who with his brothers John and Richard fought at the Battle of Mullingar, 1529. He had issue,
Dominic Whyte, who had issue:
1.     Nicholas Whyte who m. a dau of the 3rd Earl of Ormonde of whom presently
2.     Robert, treasurer of Ulster 1388 and Prior of Kilmainham:
The elder, Nicholas Whyte had issue:
Sir Maurice Whyte who served in France under Henry IV and Henry V where at the Siege of Rouen he led 2000 Irish, and later made Governor of Montaire under Henry VI. He was called “The Lancastrian” having served under 3 kings of the House of Lancaster. He m. a Fitzgerald and had issue:
1.     Bartholomew Whyte m. Anne Cusack of whom presently
2.     Patrick, Seneschal of Lecale 1469
3.     William, Recorder of Waterford 1485
The elder, Bartholomew Whyte had issue: 
1.     Nicholas Whyte of King’s Meadows co. Waterford m. Elizabeth, dau of __ Power of King’s Meadows
2.     Maureice, ancestor of the Whytes of Imokilly Co Limerick (cr. Bts in 1677 and Marquesses d’Albaville)
The elder, Nicholas Whyte had issue:
James Whyte, Seigneur of King’s Meadows co. Waterford and founder of Whyte’s Hall, near Knocktopher co. Kilkenny in 1518. Henry VII granted him a lease of the Rectory of Dunkitt, co. Kilkenny 1540. He served in Scotland with James Butler 9th Earl of Ormond; on their return to London, they and 16 others died of poisoning after a banquet at Ely House, Holborn 1546.
He m. Margaret Walsh, of co. Waterford and had issue,
Sir Nicholas Whyte, of Leixlip. Seneschal of co. Wexford and of Whyte’s Hall, Gov. of Castle of Wexford, Master of the Rolls in Ireland 1572 m.__ Sherlock and had issue, Andrew, Thomas (who died before him in 1588), and James, two of whom were educated at Cambridge.
Andrew Whyte of Leixlip, m. Margaret , dau of Patrick Finglass and d.31 July 1599, leaving issue,
Sir Nicholas Whyte, of Leixlip, aged 16 in 1599 (inq. p.m.) m. (c.1612) Ursula, dau of 1st Viscount Moore, (b.c.1595), and d.1654 and had issue, including 4 sons;
1.     Arthur (died pre 1660),
2.     Nicholas (died between 1663-1667) ,
3.     unknown son,
4.   Charles (mentioned in letter to Charles II from Emperor Leopold in 1693- Charles married firstly to Eleanor Barnewall, dau of Sir Nicholas Barnewall 1st Viscount Kingsland (m.1617), s/o Patrick Barnewall, s/o Sir Christopher Barnewall of Turvey Sheriff of Dublin.; married secondly Mary dau of Sir Thos Newcomen of Sutton Co Dublin and Frances dau of Sir Wm Talbot, who had issue John Whyte of Leixlip m. 1704 Mary Purcell abd Had issue Charles Whyte of Leixlip b 1714.)

4 daughters:
1)    Mary (b. bef 1620) 16- m. Theobald Taafe 2nd Viscount Taafe & 1st Earl of Carlingford
    –issue Nicholas Taafe 2nd Earl of C d,1690 Battle of Boyne and Francis Taafe 3rd Earl of Carlingford (1639-1704).
2)    Frances (b. bef 1617, d.1674) –m 1635. Thomas Dillon, 4th Viscount of Costello Gallen- son Thomas 5th Visc of Costello Gallen
3)    Anne (b. bef 1628)- m. Christopher Fagan of Feldrum co. Dublin, dau Elizabeth Fagan m. George Hamilton 4th Lord Hamilton, Baron of Strabane (sons Claude and Charles became 4th & 5th earls of Abercorn)
4)    Eleanor (b. bef 1633)- m.1. Edmund Butler, 2nd Viscount Galmoye- issue (Colonel) Piers 3rd Visc. Galmoye and (Colonel) Richard Butler (father of 4th Visc. Galmoye)
m.2. (Colonel) Walter Butler of Munfin- issue (Colonel) Walter Butler of Munfin

The Whites of Waterford:

1235 Philip White of Mocollop Co Waterford (near the Cork, Waterford border)
1290 Elias White, brother of Philip White
1303 Geoffrey White, son of Elias, acquired lands near Clonmel
1525 James White, Bailiff of City of Waterford, a JP in 1538
1540 James White gets a grant of lands in Co Waterford, 20 May 1540
1586 William White of White’s Island near Dromana, was attainted.
1591 Sir Walter Raleigh leased White’s Island near Dromana to Robert Balfe
1644 Captain John White commanded the Royalist Garrison at Dromana Castle (letters from Lord Laurence Esmonde Commander of Duncannon Fort to Capt John White commanding the Garrison of Dromana dated 27 July 1644 (during the Catholic Confederation Rebellion)
1659 In the Barony of Decise Co Waterford (viz. near Dromana), there were 17 persons named White
1662 James FitzRobert White, by his will dated 29 January 1662 bequeathed £40 due to him by John FitzGerlad of Dromana, Co Waterford, for the building of a hospital in Clonmell. This James White married Catherine Power (PRO, Ireland, 1626, LAG9)

1694 James White Senior, Seneschal of Dromana Manor Court, was father of James White Junr of Dromana who married Grace Grove of Kilbyne in 1694. Grace daughter of John Grove, younger brother of  Major Ion who made a gift of the lands of Kilbyrne to his younger brother John, “to hold unto the said John Grove and his heirs for ever”- John Grove made his will 18 July 1707 leaving his property to his only child, daughter Grace, then to her husband, James White, and then to his first grandson, John White (d.1754, buried Doneraile Churchyard) and his son James White (b.1728/29- d. 1780) of Kilbyrne and Ardelly near Doneraile Co Cork, who lived at Kilbyne until about 178_ when he let the house and land to two tenants. He then lived at Ballyboy Co Tipperary.

1699 Subsidy Roll of Co Cork gives Coroners of Co Waterford including Jacobus white of Ballynagowne Esq.; and Seneschals of Co Waterford including Jacobus White, Senior, Seneschal of Manor of Dromana (PRO Dublin)
Daughter of John White, Sarah White (b.1731) married 1754 her cousin William White of Hogstown Co Cork (on the border of Cork and Limerick, or border of Co Limerick and Co Tipperary (mortgaged to a Mr Harding)- issue John Grove White, Asst Surgeon 5th Dragoon Guards and afterwards Dispensary Doctor of Charleville Co Cork c.1805, buried Doneraile Churchyard. 
James Grove White Esq. (son of James White the younger b1728 of Kilbyrne) was appointed the commissioner for the Parish of Newcastle (Tipperary) to collect the tithes in Iffa & Offa West. Born 1791 in Lough Tipperary, died 1866 in  Doneraile near Kilbyrne Nth Cork (about 25 kms WNW of Fermoy) the Whites having inherited the large estate there from one of the wives' Grove family in the late 1600's. 

Other Whites of Cork

After Cromwell, and the restoration of King Charles II, a Sir Thomas White came into possession of the greater part of the baronies of Bere and Bantry in SW Cork, purchasing some of the land debentures granted by Cromwell to his army officers during the civil war, and their descendants held possession for about 250 years.
William Playfair gives the following account of White family of Cork in the British Family Antiquity:—
" On the restoration of Charles II, Sir Thomas White settled in the South of Ireland, where he became a purchaser of some of the land debentures granted by Oliver Cromwell to the officers of his army during the civil wars, and had a son, Richard, who resided at Bantry until his death in 1730; having previously married a Miss Hamilton of Scotland, by whom he had an only son Richard, who was bred to the law and called to the English Bar, but never practised. He married, 10th of December, 1734, Martha, daughter of the Rev. Dean Davis, of Davistown, in the County of Cork, and had issue by her, one son and one daughter, viz., Simon, born 8th of May, 1739, and Margaret, born in 1738, who married, 8th of November, 1756, Richard, Viscount Longueville, by whom she had no issue.
Simon White married, in August, 1766, Frances Jane, daughter of Richard Hedges Eyre, of Mount Hedges and Macroom Castle in the County of Cork, Esq. (by Helena, the daughter of Thomas Herbert, of Muckross, in the County of Kerry, by the Hon. M. Browne, daughter of Lord Viscount Kenmare), and, dying in 1776, left issue, Richard, the present Viscount Bantry, who was born 6th of August, 1767, and married, 10th of November, 1799, Margaret Anne Hare, eldest daughter of Lord Ennismore, by whom he has had issue, Richard, born 16th of November, 1800; William Hare, born 10th of November, 1801; Maria, born 10th of November, 1805; and Simon, born 10th of March, 1807."
Richard White was created a Baron, 31st March, 1797, and a Viscount, 29th of December, 1800, and Earl in 1816 for services rendered on the occasion of Wolfe Tone's expedition. He manifested his loyalty by conveying intelligence to the authorities in Cork of the arrival of the French fleet in Bantry Bay and lodged and entertained in his own house at Bantry English officers during the time of the disturbance. He also kept a vigilant look out for any further invasion.
He married Lady Margaret Anne Hare, daughter of the first Earl of Listowel. He had issue Richard, who married a daughter of the Marquis of Thomond, and died childless. The third viscount was a brother of his, William Henry Hare White and the fourth was his son and of the same name, who died without issue and the titles became extinct. The Hon. Egerton Leigh White succeeded, who assumed the family name and arms of White by royal licence, in July, 1897. He sold the estate to the Congested Districts Board in 1913 for £80,000. The present occupiers are for the most part descendants of the old race, and so, after many changes and revolutions, they hold their own again. The Whites held possession for about 250 years. They were resident landlords, but effected no improvements; their lands were highly rented, but the management of the estate was of a mild type, and there were very few evictions."

Conclusion- the Whites living in the area between Clogheen and the border of Tipperary/Cork/Waterford in the early to mid 1800's, probably descended from the Whites of Dromana which is only about 20 kms SE of Araglin.

NB Kilbyrne about 15 kms west of Buttevant
Mocollop is about 5 kms due south from Araglin, near the Cork Waterford border (above the loop)

Link back to Introduction:

Links to all other chapters in this blog:

Tobin and Driscoll family in Tipperary Ireland

Tobin family settle in Gerringong, NSW, Australia in 1857

Tobin family settle in Tallebudgera Queensland in 1870

Life at Tallebudgera for the Tobin Family until 1892

Tobin family move back to NSW and Western Australia- deaths of Stephen and Mary

Stephen Tobin's sister Catherine Tobin- marriage to Timothy Guinea

Bushrangers in the family

Stephen Tobin's sister Ellen Tobin- an Irish female orphan immigrant in 1850

Stephen Tobin's daughter Katherine Tobin- marriage to Adolph Poulsen

Sons of Stephen Tobin and Mary Driscoll

Daughters of Stephen Tobin and Mary Driscoll

Irish Roots of Tobins, Driscolls, O'Briens, and Whites

29 March 2013

Stephen Tobin- Ch:12- daughters of Stephen & Mary

Stephen and Mary Tobin had seven daughters.
Daughter KATHERINE TOBIN’S life was outlined in Chapter 10.

This chapter deals with the lives of their other six daughters.


MARY TOBIN was born on 26 Apr 1858 in Gerringong, NSW.[i] She died on 23 Dec 1938 in North Perth, WA.[ii] She married ALEXANDER MCPHERSON DUNCAN  8 Jul 1900 at Menzies, West Australia,[iii]
No issue.

In 1889 Mary took over as Post Mistress of the Tallebudgera Post Office. For how long she stayed with the Postal Service is unknown, but she must have gone with her parents to Perth, and  married Alexander Duncan in Menzies W.A.
The notice in the West Australian Thurs 12 July 1900 p.4:
DUNCAN-TOBIN- On the 8th inst. at Menzies by the Rev. W. Dooley, Alexander MacPherson Duncan, of Mount Malcolm, to Mary Tobin of Illawarra, Goderich street Perth. 
The house 'Illawarra' was the home of her mother.

How she met Alexander is unknown, but notably, Mary was 42 years of age when she married him. Her death certificate states she was a widow. There are three records of deaths of Alexander Duncans in the W.A. records:
i) Alexander Duncan, d.1906, Beverley
ii) Alexander Duncan, d.1913 N. Coolgardie
iii) Alexander Dillon Duncan, d.1902 
No information has been found on this marriage which appears to have been of short duration.
Mary was buried in Karrakatta cemetery with her sister Alice Hyde- Sect. HA, No. 0807.


LOUISA TOBIN, born in Gerringong, NSW, on 20 September 1861,[iv], and LILY MARGARET TOBIN, born in Tallebudgera, QLD, on 25 May 1877,[vi],, remained spinsters. Louisa followed the family's long association with the Postal Service, begun by her father, followed by her elder sister Mary, at Tallebudgera. Louisa was firstly posted to Mulgoa, NSW (near Penrith) on 13 October 1884, and was then transferred to Bundanoon in late 1899, where she remained for the remainder of her life. Her youngest sister Lily was appointed assistant Post Mistress. She and Lily looked after their father following his stroke until his peaceful death months later.

After Louisa's death on  7 August 1931 in Bundanoon/MossVale,[v]Lily lived her later years in the Bundanoon Hotel, dying on 10 November 1951 at Moss Vale/Bowral.[vii]  
The Will of Lily Margaret Tobin, apart from other bequests, said:
To my grand-nephew and godson Niall Spain, the sum of one hundred pounds absolutely; to my grand-nephew Anthony (Philip) Nott of Mobray St. New Farm, Brisbane, the sum of one hundred pounds. Mrs Eileen Spain (nee Poulsen- her niece) and Haille Hands Paine Solicitor, named as Executors, each to receive one hundred pounds.

Postal Department's re-location expenses for Louisa Tobin

Post Office Appointments

The following obituary appeared in the Scrutineer & Berrima District Press, Wed. 12 August 1931 p2:


ELIZABETH (Lizzie) TOBIN was born in c. 1860 in Sydney, NSW.viii] She died on 3 August 1928 in Talbot Road,  Swan View, Perth, W.A..[ix] She married DR. KARL AUGUST EDWARD ROMMEIS in 1881 QLD.[x].
Issue- Christian Frederick b.1882, d.1943; Mary Dorothy b.1884, d. infancy; Stephen Edward b.1886 d.1891; Eunice Elizabeth b.1887 d.1894; Dorothy Mary b.1889, m.1915 to R. Farrar, d.?; Joyce Alice b.1890, d.1894; Monica/Mona b.1892, m.1913 William L. Hoops, d.1972; Edward b/d.1896; Edward Anslem b/d.1897.

Elizabeth Tobin married Karl August Edward Rommeis (known as Edward) on 14 July 1881 at the Royal Mail Hotel Nerang, QLD, her father Stephen Tobin's hotel.

(The following information on the Rommeis family courtesy of D. and J. Moss)

Karl August Edward Rommeis was the son of Christian Friedrich Rommeis and Anna Elizabeth Marker. Karl was born in Chidruff Saxony, Germany c.1853. They also had a daughter named Anna who was born in Gotha Saxony Germany. They migrated to Australia, landing in Adelaide on Thursday 17 February 1870 on the 'San Francisco' from Hamburg.
South Australian Register, Fri 18 Feb. 1870- Shipping Intelligence
The San Francisco is a Barque, 600 tons, from Hamberg October 28th 1869. The passengers were... Christian, Elizabeth, Ann and Edward Rommeisz (sic), between decks. There were only 14 passengers on board. The barque's voyage has been an ordinary one,... And not even the customary continuance of gales across the Southern Ocean is reported.

Friedrich Rommeis, a carpenter (although described as an 'architect' on his son's marriage record), died in April 1878, aged 61 years, in Hahndorf in South Australia and was buried in St. Michael's Church cemetery on 11 April 1878. Daughter Anna was married in 1876 to Johann Herman Gotthilf Schneemilch, a carpenter, in Adelaide, by the Lutheran Pastor in the Lutheran Bethlehem Church. A witness was her brother E. Rommeis, who was described as a 'book binder'.

The South Australian Advertiser Wed 12 April 1871 reported that E. Rommeis received an award for history in the German School in Wakefield Street, Adelaide.

Sometime between Friedrich's death in April 1878 and 1879, the family, which included Anna, her husband Johann and their son August Otto (b.1877) and Elizabeth Rommeis, and Karl August Edward Rommeis left Hahndorf on a German Cart (viz. a large wooden cart, with smaller front wheels pulled by a couple of horses- descendants claim the information had been handed down) and eventually arrived at Kalkie just outside Bundaberg in Queensland.  This would have been a long, difficult journey. Anna and Johann's daughter was born in Kalkie in January 1880.  Anna's husband Johann died and she remarried to Edward Zollinger, a farmer at Kalkie. Anna, a nurse, died in Kalkie in 1915, and had three surviving children by her first husband.
Whether Edward Rommeis went all the way to Bundaberg or stopped near the border at Nerang to set up his practice as a doctor, is unknown. He was living, and practising medicine, at Nerang by 1881.

Where and when Edward Rommeis trained in medicine is unknown. He was described as a 'book binder' in Adelaide in 1876 and they left for Queensland  around 1879, so it would seem likely that he gained his qualifications during that period of time.
In the Brisbane Courier, 2 November 1881, Dr. Rommeis, Nerang Creek, donated a piece of fossil wood and fish (Mureoua Picta) to the Queensland Museum.

Dr Edward Rommeis married Elizabeth Tobin, second daughter of Stephen and Mary Tobin, in Nerang in 1881.
Brisbane Courier, Thurs 18 August 1881
ROMMEIS-TOBIN- On 14th July at Nerang by Rev. B. Scortechini, Karl A. E. Rommeis, M.D. of Saxe-Coberg, Gotha, to Elizabeth, 2nd daughter of Stephen Tobin of Nerang.
Their marriage certificate reveals that they were married at the Royal Mail Hotel (Elizabeth's father's hotel), and that Edward's place of abode was Nerang. He was 28 years of age and she was 20. Edward must have converted to Catholicism to be married by a Catholic priest. Notably, his brother-in-law Adolph Poulsen who married Elizabeth's sister Katherine, also changed his religion from Lutheran to Catholic.

Between 1890 and 1892, Edward and Elizabeth moved to the other side of the country, to Western Australia. They were the first of the family to do so, and most of the Tobin family would follow them in the years to come. Their sixth daughter Joyce was born in Nerang in 1890, and their seventh child Monica/Mona was born in Jarrahdale W.A. in 1892.

Dr. Rommeis has a number of mentions in the W.A. newspapers:

The Daily News (Perth) Fri 2 June 1893 p3
The small pox scare has not affected us much. The Government medical officer of the district Dr Lovegrove, had a notice posted at the commencement of the epidemic that he would visit us and vaccinate, yet we have neither seen nor heard from him since. Most of the children and adults have had the operation performed successfully by the Company’s medical officer Dr Rommeis, to whom all praise is due for his assiduity in the performance of this and other duties in connection with the company. It is reported that he is about to leave us. On the eve of his departure I believe it is the intention of his many friends to give him a “Social” which he richly deserves, and a very pleasant evening will be spent, of which I hope to be able to give you a report.

West Australian, Tues 13 October 1896
Dr Rommeis, who has for long been favourably known in Jarrahdale and the surrounding district, has taken a house in Subiaco, and intends commencing practice in that suburb at an early date.

West Australian, Wed 11 November 1896
Dr Rommeis (late of Jarrahdale) has commenced the Practice of his profession at Subiaco, opposite Government school, and may be consulted from 8 to 10 a.m., 3 to 4 p.m., and 7 to 8 p.m.

In July 1897, Edward gave his sister-in-law Alice Tobin away at her wedding to George Needom  Hyde, due to the fact that Alice's father had gone to Sydney to clear his name at Court. (Western Mail, Fri 16 July 1897 p.11). The reception was given at Alice and Elizabeth's mother's home, named 'Illawarra', in Goderich Street, East Perth.

In 1898, Dr Rommeis gave evidence at an inquest for a 17 year old youth who  shot himself in the head outside the Railway Hotel.  Edward who was at the hotel, was called to help and had then taken the injured boy to his home nearby where he expired. The boy had been distraught on hearing  that he was illegitimate. (West Australian, Fri 17 June 1989 p.5)

He was mentioned in the obituary for a young 23 year old woman who had died after a long illness. It said "she was skilfully treated by Dr. Rommeis of North Freemantle but all efforts were unavailing". (Western Mail, Fri 23 Sept 1898 P.41)

Dr Rommeis was also called to treat two cyclists who collided causing severe injuries. (The Inquirer and Commercial News, Fri 23 Sept 1898 )

West Australian, Fri 20 May 1899 p2
Local Board of Health.
The council sitting as a local board of health, received a letter from Dr Rommeis accepting the position of health officer. The doctor, who was in attendance, said that so far 12 cases of typhoid had been reported. He had made an inspection of the premises in each case, and the only reason he could assign for the outbreak was the water. At all the places well water was being used. The drainage polluted the whole surface, and it did not matter where they put down a well they would get polluted water. The water supply of Freemantle also was most unwholesome. The greater part of the sickness amongst children was due to the Freemantle water where used. So far he had not had time to inquire into the matter fully. Etc. etc. On a motion of Cr. Riley a vote of thanks was accorded Dr Rommeis for accepting the position.

West Australian, Sat 19 Aug 1899 p10.
North Fremantle Municipal Council Meeting.
The Sanitary Site Question: The health officer Dr Rommeis said that the health of the town was very satisfactory. Two cases of chicken-pox had been reported, but absolutely no other sickness. He had visited the sanitary site and found it in a perfectly clean condition. Etc.  

Daily News (Perth), Sat 10 Feb 1900 p7.
North Freemantle Council.
The Health Officer.Owing to the reported absence of Dr Rommeis, the health officer, at Kalgoorlie, it was resolved to communicate with him and ask whether it was his intention to resign his appointment. In the case of Dr Rommeis resigning, the town clerk was instructed to invite applications for the position of health officer at a salary of £20 per year.

Kalgoorlie Miner, Wed 3 July 1901 p.6.
Kanowna July 2.
A meeting of the United Friendly Societies was held last evening to consider the appointment of a medical officer to the societies. After going through the qualifications of wach of the candidates, it was decided to appoint Dr Rommeis, of Claremont, who stated in his application that he could take up his duties without delay. Dr Rommeis leaves for Kanowna to-morrow evening, and will be met by several of the leading officers of the societies on his arrival.

Kalgoorlie Western Argus Tues 23 July 1901 p11.
Kanowna July 10.
Dr Rommeis, the newly appointed medical officer for the United Friendly Societies here, is to arrive from Claremont by to-day’s express. The medico was expected some time ago, but it now appears that business of a pressing nature had detained him until now.

Kalgoorlie Miner Wed 24 July 1901 p6.
Kanowna July 23.
Dr Rommeis, the newly appointed medical officer to the local friendly societies, has arrived in Kanowna. The medico was met at the station by several of the council, representing both the Druids and the Forresters.

West Australian, Fri 4 Oct 1901 p4.
ROMMEIS- the friends of the late Dr Edward Rommeis, late of Jarrahdale, W.A., are respectfully invited to follow his remains to the place of interment, the Roman Catholic Cemetery Karrakatta. The funeral is appointed to leave his late residence 120 Goderich Street, East Perth, at a quarter to 11 o’clock this morning.
Notably Mary Tobin (mother),  William and Nellie Philpott, and Edward and Elizabeth Rommeis, all lived in Goderich Street at various times.

West Australian, Sat 4 Aug 1928 p1.
ROMMEIS- The Friends of the late Mrs Elizabeth Rommeis, of Talbot Road, Swan View, are respectfully invited to follow her remains to the place of interment, the Roman Catholic portion of the Karrakatta Cemetery. Etc.

NB. Edward and Elizabeth Rommeis are buried in a family grave with Elizabeth’s mother Mary Tobin in the RC Historical Section AA Grave No. 0368 at Karrakatta Cemetery.

West Australian, Tues 15 October 1901.
Karl August Edward Rommeis. Re Claims or Demands upon or against the Estate of Karl August Edward Rommeis, late of Kanowna and Perth, Doctor of Medicine, deceased, intestate, who died on the 3rd October 1901, at Perth aforesaid, (and Letters of Administration on whose Estate were granted by the Supreme Court of Western Australia to Elizabeth Rommeis of Goderich Street Perth) etc. Elizabeth died 27 years later in 1828, aged 68 years. She was living at 68 Talbot Road, Swan View, north Perth.  

The Rommeis had settled in Jarrahdale. A history of the town, gives the following information:
Governor Weld in the late 1860s was to stimulate the establishment and growth of an important timber industry in this state by granting long term leases or concessions. A group of investors in Victoria, including the Wanliss brothers, William and Thomas, were to be granted a 100,000 ha timber concession in June 1871. The Jarrahdale Station Syndicate thus came into being with a land lease stretching from Byford in the north, almost to North Dandelup in the south and east to include most of the Canning River watershed. After many name changes it became the Rockingham Jarrah Timber Co. The town ship was originally called the Jarrahdale Station.  

The town itself had responded quickly to a growing population; Jarrahdale was in the late 1890s the fourth largest community in the state after Perth, Bunbury and Kalgoorlie. It now had a Wesleyan Methodist church, a new school at Cousens Street, a police presence in the town with police quarters, court house and goal, a hospital for the mill workers which was financed by them, a resident doctor (Dr Rommies), a post offlice (now the museum) St Paul's Church of England built in 1895. Most buildings including the small public hall, a large hall with a stage, the library, were, with the exception of one house, all under the control of the Company. Note, too, there were post receiving offices and bush schools at outlying saw mills. By the 1900s, Jarrahdale had a town population of about 1200 people while 800 more were housed in surrounding bush landings and remote sites.


ELLEN VERONICA (Nellie) TOBIN was born in 1863 in Gerringong, NSW.[xi] She died on 13 Aug 1942 in Parkerville WA.[xii] She married 10 Dec 1883 WILLIAM PHILPOTT in Brisbane QLD.[xiii]
Issue: Frances Mary b.1884 d.1928, Noel William b.1886 d.?, Beryl Vyvyan b 1888 d.1911, Adrian Wylde b.1890 d.1918

In 1866, Henry Schneider, and William and Charles Philpott, “all Oxford University men” (History of Nerang), arrived at Nerang. On the bank of the Nerang River, the Birribi estate was originally owned by the Philpott Brothers who grew sugar cane there.
The Philpott’s owned sugar cane and timber mills on the Nerang River, and built the ship ‘Maid of Sker’ in 1884 to transport timber from their mill to Brisbane. An Inventory of Sawmills in Qld (written by John Kerr in Jan 1998- www.daff.gov.au, page 145) lists the Philpott Brothers owning a sawmill at Nerang between 1887 and 1893.

William Philpott, born in Severn Stokes, Worcestershire, England in 1844, was the son of Henry Charles Philpott, an Anglican Clergyman. In the 1851 England Census, Henry Charles Philpott, curate of Severn Stokes, Worcestershire, his wife Anne, and 6 children including William 7 and Charles 5, were living in Severn Stokes. In the 1861 Census, William was a student at Magdalen College Oxford University. Five years later he and his brother migrated to Queensland.

William was 39 years of age and Nellie was just 20 years of age when they married at St. Stephens RC Cathedral in Brisbane. Once again, a husband who must have converted to Catholicism. Their marriage certificate describes him as a 'sugar planter'.

In 1903 Electoral Roll, William and Nellie were living at 132 Goderich St East Perth, occupation- clerk. This address was in the same street as Mary Tobin and Elizabeth Rommeis.

In 1910, they were living at Tammin, subdistrict Northam, district of Swan, occupation- farmer.

They were still there in 1916, living with their son Adrian Philpott, also a farmer. Adrian died just two years later.

In 1925, they were living in Roseberry Ave, subdistrict of Canning, Sth Perth, occupation- retired. This was the same address where Nellie's mother died in 1913.
(NB at the same time another William Philpott, labourer, lived in Cottosloe Beach Fremantle with his wife Martha.)

William Philpott died in Perth in 1925 [xiv] and was buried at Karrakatta cemetery in RC Section DA Grave 0530, in which his wife Nellie was also buried after her death aged 79 in 1942.


 ALICE GABRIELLE TOBIN was born on 20 July 1868 in Gerringong, NSW.[xv] She died on 29 August 1952 in Mt Lawley W.A..[xvi] She married on 12 July 1897 GEORGE NEEDOM HYDE in W.A. [xvii], the son of Thomas Hyde Esq. of 'Fairview' Kilkenny, Ireland.
Issue: Brian b.1897; Patricia b.c.1910.

Western Mail Fri 16 July 1897 p11.
WEDDING- a number of friends congregated at the Catholic Cathedral on Monday to witness the marriage of Mr G.N. Hyde, of the Public Works, Geraldton, and Miss Alice Tobin of Illawarra, Goderich Street (East Perth). The bride, who was given away by Dr Rommeis, wore her travelling dress of brown cloth with violet velvet bolero and cream satin vest, She was attended by her sister, Miss Tobin, attired in a pretty costume of prune and pale blue, After the ceremony, the guests assembled at the residence of the bride’s mother, Illawarra, to drink the health and tender their congratulations to the newly-wedded pair. Mr and Mrs Hyde left Perth in the mail train for Geraldton, their future home.

Within a short time after their wedding, Alice travelled to Sydney to be a witness for her father at his trial in August 1897.

In the 1910 Electoral Roll, George and Alice were living at 34 Clifton Street, North Perth; occupation- civil servant.

In 1916, they were living in Kintale Road, Applecross, subdistrict of Canning, district of Freemantle; occupation- civil servant.

In 1925, George was living in Dwards, subdistrict of Beverley, district of Swan; occupation costs clerk, wife not listed.

In 1936, George, retired, was living with Alice and daughter Patricia Mary Hyde, typiste, at 224 Walcott Street, subdistrict Maylands, district of Perth. The following year, their daughter was no longer listed with them. They continued to live at this address, as shown in the 1943 and 1949 Electoral Rolls. Nellie died at this address in 1952 and was buried at Karrakatta Cemetery Perth, RC Section HA grave 0807, with her elder sister Mary Duncan who had died in 1937. 

In the 1954 Electoral Roll, George Needom Hyde was living in Eaglehawk, Bendigo, nil occupation. He died in Bendigo three years later, in 1957, aged 90.[xviii]  

© B A Butler

Email contact  butler1802 @hotmail.com  (no spaces)

Link back to Introduction:

Links to all other chapters in this blog:

Tobin and Driscoll family in Tipperary Ireland

Tobin family settle in Gerringong, NSW, Australia in 1857

Tobin family settle in Tallebudgera Queensland in 1870

Life at Tallebudgera for the Tobin Family until 1892

Tobin family move back to NSW and Western Australia- deaths of Stephen and Mary

Stephen Tobin's sister Catherine Tobin- marriage to Timothy Guinea

Bushrangers in the family

Stephen Tobin's sister Ellen Tobin- an Irish female orphan immigrant in 1850

Stephen Tobin's daughter Katherine Tobin- marriage to Adolph Poulsen

Sons of Stephen Tobin and Mary Driscoll

Daughters of Stephen Tobin and Mary Driscoll

Irish Roots of Tobins, Driscolls, O'Briens, and Whites

[i] NSW 8026/1958
[ii] WA 23/1938
[iii] WA 527/1900
[iv] NSW 8278/1861 and Postal Office Record
[v] NSW 13648/1931
[vi] QLD 1877/C3136
[vii] NSW 32624/1955
[viii] Age calculated from death certificate WA 68/1928 aged 68 yrs
[ix] WA 68/1928
[x] QLD 1881/C691
[xi] NSW 8553/1863
[xii] WA 107/1942
[xiii] QLD 1883/B8616
[xiv] WA 1113/1925
[xv] NSW 10657/1868
[xvi] WA 2107/1952
[xvii] WA 1082/1897
[xviii] VIC 21441/1957