In the 1844 Census, their mother, Charlotte Gudmundsen, one of twins, was a servant/maid.
In the 1855 Danish Census, their father, Lars Poulsen, was described as a "murersvend" or bricklayer (although on his marriage record, he described his father as a stonemason), "-svend" means he was "educated". In the 1860 Census, he is described as a "murermester" which means he was a self-employed bricklayer. "Murer" can mean mason and bricklayer, but the "stone-work" or bricklaying is connected with house building, possibly with bricks made of stone. (NB. compare with the word "stenhugger" which means stonemason.)
As Copenhagen was a fast growing city, he would find a lot of employment as a bricklayer in the inner city. Strangely, no census records of Lars Poulsen have yet been found in the 1870, 1880 and 1885 census records, yet he appears to have been still living there.
The County of Fredericksborg in the north of the island of Zealand should not be confused with Fredericksberg, an enclave surrounded by the city of Copenhagen and informally considered part of Copenhagen, also now considered the most prestigious area to live in.
He married CHARLOTTE FREDRIKKE GUDMUNDSEN on 01 June 1851 in Frederiksberg, Copenhaven, Denmark. She, and her twin sister Ingeborg, were born on 25 November 1825 and Christened on 17 March 1826 January 1826 in Copenhaven, Denmark (at Trinitatis Sogn), and died Unknown in Denmark (after 1880).
She was the daughter of Thorlak Gudmunsen and Charlotte Friderikke Kjaer. Charlotte also had two brothers, Magnus and Rasmus.
Lars was the son of unmarried mother Edel Sophie Dreyer; his sire was also named Lars Poulsen. The Dreyer family of Helsingor (known as Elsinore in English) was a well-to-do family, so her pregnancy must have been a shock to the family and she was sent to the house of an Anders Nielsen at the small village of Skovhuse in Esbonderup a few miles inland of Helsingor to give birth. Both the Dreyer and the Poulsen family came from the neighbouring island of Odense, and the ancestry of these families is extensively explored at the bottom of this page.
NB. Copenhagen is spelt Cobenhaven or Kǿbenhavns in Danish.
Lars was married to Charlotte Gudmundsen in June 1851 at Frederiksberg Parish in Copenhagen. They were Lutherans.
In the 1855 Census, Lars, aged 31, was described as a bricklayer, living in Utterslev, Bronshej, Sokkelund, with his wife Charlotte, housewife aged 29, their children August, aged 4 and Carl aged 2, and Charlotte's twin sister Ingeborg also 29.
Daughter Elvine Florentine Nathalia Poulsen was Christened 2 December 1855 at Bronshoj, Kobenhavn (FHL microfilm 44,270)
Daughter Adleheid Eleonore Augusta Poulsen was christened 3 May 1857 at Bronshoj, Kobenhavn
Also (second record No 10):
There is a church Confirmation record in Holmen's Church for Ferdinand Adolf Poulsen in 1874:
Confirmation April 19, 1874 in Holmen's Church, Holmen's Sogn, Sokkelund Herred, Copenhagen County Denmark:
Ferdinand Adolf Georg Poulsen, Ǿstergade 20.
Parents: Murer, Lars Poulsen, Charlotte Frederikke Gudmundsen.
(Murer= bricklayer) However, he is not living in Ǿstergade 20 (centre of Copenhagen) in the 1870 or 1880 census.
There are no further records of the family in the Census records after 1860 until the 1880 Census, when Charlotte Gudmundsen is listed as a convict at a prison in Copenhaven, and divorced from husband Lars Poulsen. Lars is not listed in the Census.
iii. ELVINE FLORENTINE NATHALIA POULSEN, Ch. 2 December 1855, Bronshoj, Kobenhavn, d. unknown (LDS_FHL microfilm 44,270)
iv. ADELHEID ELEONORE AUGUSTA POULSEN, Ch. 3 May 1857, Bronshoj, Kobenhavn, d. unknown (FHL microfilm 44,270)
v. FERDINAND ADOLPH GEORGE POULSEN, b. 12 January 1860, Copenhagen Denmark; d. 08 July 1932, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
There are no further records of August, therefore he either died, or moved on, or returned to Denmark. However, Adolph's niece Alexandra Poulsen attended his wife's funeral in 1901- probably the daughter of August. The Electoral Roll for NSW showed Alexandria Elvina Poulsen, occupation domestic duties, living with Adolph George Poulsen, musician, Marjorie Vaughn Poulsen, clerk, and Theodore Sylvestor Poulsen, clerk, living at 89 Cowper-street Waverley. However, in the 1914 Electoral Roll, only Adolph was living at 89 Cowper Street, although a Miss Ethel Poulson, violin teacher, was also living in Cowper Street, no street number given- whether this was Alexandra, or another Poulsen relation is uncertain.
In his original letter to the museum curator, Adolph Poulsen, claimed he acquired the instrument in Copenhagen in 1868, when he was just 8 years of age. (see letter below)
The maker of the violin was Johann Gottfried Hamm, and the violin was made c.1784-1810. Johann Gottfried Hamm (1764-1817) was known to make violins in an Italian style, and mostly worked in Markneukirchen in Germany. Hamm was a "Master of the Violin Maker's Guild, and known as the best maker of his time." "Sometimes prettily marked wood, but always acoustically good even when plain. Branded inside with 'I.G.H.'. Sometimes 'Hamm'. Sometimes inlaid the edges with ivory, mother-of-pearl, and other material for decoration. Occasionally a coat-of-arms inlaid with ivory on the back. In 1959, a Hamm violin was worth about £100. "
(ref. William Henley, Universal Dictionary of Violin and Bow Makers, 1973 ed.)
Adolph described the violin in his letter:
"This violin was made by Johannes Gottfried Hamm, a German. Initials I*G*H* being stamped inside in the back and Ivory edges inlade outside around the top edge, with a small Ivory Label inlade on the back. His date is 1780-1810."
Adolph further claims that the violin underwent restoration by Emil Hjorth in 1874 "when new linings, bass bar, blocks, fingerboard, tailpiece and pegs were added."
Emil Hjorth (1840-1920) was a Danish maker and repairer working in Copenhagen and part of a family of makers and repairers who worked for the Danish Court from the late 18th century. He also worked briefly in Vienna, Paris and London and became repairer to the Danish Royal Orchestra.
The label inside the violin reads in very small print:
ie. repaired by Emil Hjorth at Frederksberg, Copenhagen.
As Adolph was born and raised in Frederiksberg (Copenhagen), it would be interesting to know if Adolph played for the Danish Royal Orchestra at any time.
Adolph's first letter to the curator of the Technological Museum in Sydney, dated 20 November 1929:
In his letter, Adolph described the tone of his violin as "beautiful, clear, sweet yet full and somewhat resembles that of a clarionet."
His scathing comment on the bottom of his letter may give an insight into his character. On describing the broken neck of his violin, he wrote:
"If I had done all I was advised to do to it by prominent artists and teachers who ought to have more sense, there would have been nothing of the Instrument left. To save it from such Vandals, I have placed it out of their reach."
To house his violin at the museum, Adolph had a maple display case and brass plate commissioned especially for it by Charles Ritchie Ltd, costing him £5.10s.
Adolph Poulsen's emigration to Australia
For some reason, Adolph Poulsen was in England when he decided to emigrate to Australia. Whether he was working there at the time is unknown, but he is not in the 1881 English Census.
Embarking at Plymouth England, he arrived on a ship named the B.I.S. Chybassa landing firstly at Cooktown 19 October 1882, and disembarking in Mackay in November 1882, where he claimed he spent the next three years.
After spending three years in Mackay, Adolph then arrived at Southport in 1885 where he joined the Local Volunteer Force (1885-1890). Land was surveyed and named Southport in 1875.
An article, Ramblings in QLD from Tweed to Nerang in the Logan Witness (Beenleigh) Sat 21 January 1882 p4 described Southport as a 'favourite watering place which is making rapid strides, and will continue to do so. The place has become a rage and is "fashionable'. A an illustration of the progress it has made, I might tell you that three years ago, there was only one building here, and that land which was sold from £20 an allotment has since been sold for £150. There is a daily coach to and from Brisbane, also a steamer once or twice a week. A school of arts is about to be established here, Mr J. R. Sabine being the chief moving spirit in the matter. There are three really good hotels. Fishing forms no small part of the amusement of the visitors to Southport.'
Adolph would often play at Sabine's School of Arts.
The Brisbane Courier, Friday 23 Oct 1885 p3 featured an article on Southport and the Volunteers:
The Volunteers have lately been making no small stir in this usually quiet locality. The arrival of the new uniforms- a neat and serviceable turn-out in blue, with white facings- was availed of by Captain Agnew as an appropriate occasion for making the corp's first military display. This took the form of a church parade, and the company, preceded by the drums and fifes, marched in good style to St John's Church, where divine service was celebrated by the Ven. Archdeacon Glennie, in the presence of an overflowing congregation. A finer body of men than the Southport Volunteers are not often to be met with in that arm of her Majesty's service.
On the 14th instant a Volunteer ball was given in the School of Arts for the ostensible purpose of augmenting the funds of the company, though the new uniforms might have had some slight influence in bringing about the festive occasion. the affair was a brilliant one, and the pecuniary result more than realised the anticipations of its promoters. The decorations, the music (provided by Messrs Rosenstengel and Poulsen), the ladies' dresses, the refreshments, and the spirit infused into the dancing were all that could be wished.
For five years, he lived in the Southport area where he met the Tobin family, pioneer settlers at Tallebudgera. He married Katherine Tobin on 19 May 1886, in the Tallebudgera Catholic Church, having converted to Catholicism.
Katherine had been born in Gerringong/ Kiama New South Wales in 1865 to Irish immigrant parents Stephen and Mary Tobin (see rest of Tobin blog).
Adolph and Katherine had 5 children between 1887 and 1894, the first three born in the Southport/Nerang area, and the last two, born in Lismore NSW after 1892.
In 1887, Poulsen was on the Electoral List for the Division of Nerang, qualification of 'Freeholder' at Southport. Notably his father-in-law Stephen Tobin was not on the list.
Adolph's skills as a violinist, was often called upon at local events. He had a close association with two local Schools, playing at their concerts, as well as the School of Arts run by Mr J.R. Sabine. Whether he taught any of the children at the schools is unknown. He no doubt provided the entertainment at musical events at the Tobin's Music Hall and hotel.
There are several newspaper reports that mentioned his contributions to local entertainment:
Logan Witness (Beenleigh) Sat 21 June 1890 p2
Southport Oddfellows Ball-
Took place in the School of Arts on Monday night last, and may fairly claim to have been a success. A nice little programme of 26 dances kept the affair going till early morn. The music was supplied by Mrs Sabine (piano) and Mr Poulsen (violin) and was a cut above what is generally met at most socials. About 40 couples were present.
The Poulsen's move to NSW
Adolph visited some friends in July 1900- The Richmond River Herald & Northern Districts Advertiser, Friday 6 July 1900 p4:
AN OLD FRIEND
The annual ball was held at Nowra last week, and the Shoalhaven Telegraph this refers to the playing of Herr Poulsen (for some years residing at Lismore):- Capital music was dispensed by Mrs Cordery (piano) and Herr Poulsen, of Sydney (violin). Herr Poulsen is at present staying with Mr and Mrs Gurney, and kindly proffered his services. He is a violinist of exceptional ability, and his playing on a fine old instrument of beautiful tone will not soon be forgotten by those who had the good fortune to be present.
Katherine died of pneumonia and heart failure on 16 August 1901 at the young age of 36, leaving her young children aged between 7 and 14. Death notices appeared in the Sydney Morning Herald, from her husband, inviting friends to attend her funeral, and also one from her niece Alexandra Poulsen. She must have been Adolph's brother August’s daughter who was staying with them.
Mrs Poulsen- Many will regret to learn that pneumonia has been responsible for the death of Mrs Poulsen, wife of Herr Adolph Poulsen, the well-known musician of Waverley, which occurred on Friday last after a few days' illness. Mrs Poulsen only a week before her death was in robust health, assisting to do honour to the Very Rev, Father Kennedy O.F.M. and the news of her death was not known to many till its announcement in St Charles's Church on Sunday. The deceased lady, who was only 36 years of age, was a daughter of Mr S. Tobin of Bundanoon. She was of a genial disposition, and entered with zest into every religious or charitable work in connection with the Waverley Parish. She was a member of the Third Order of St Francis, at the meeting of whose members on Sunday last her demise was announced by Father Birch. The funeral took place to the Waverley Cemetery on Sunday afternoon. R.I.P.
Following the death of his wife, leaving him with the difficult job of raising five young children, Adolph called on his father-in-law, Stephen Tobin, and his two sisters-in-law Louisa and Lily Tobin for help. The children spent some of their childhood in Bundanoon where Stephen (until his death in 1904) and Louisa and Lily resided, the two spinsters having been appointed postmistresses at Bundanoon from 1899. The children attended school in nearby Moss Vale, travelling by train. They remained very fond of their aunts and visited them regularly. Louisa died in 1931, and by 1950 Lily was residing at the Bundanoon Hotel, dying in 1955
In the 1913 NSW Electoral Roll for Waverley:
Address- 89 Cowper Street Waverley:
Poulsen, Adolph George, musician
Poulsen, Alexandria Elvina, domestic duties (niece)
Poulsen, Marjorie Vaughan, clerk (daughter)
Poulsen, Theodore Sylvester, clerk (son)
In the 1914 NSW Post Office Directory:
Poulsen, Adolph, 89 Cowper Street Waverley
Poulsen, Miss Ethel, Cowper Street Waverley, tchr violin (??? Eileen maybe?)
Adolph applied for citizenship in 1915, which was granted. He was living at Goulburn at the time, stating he had lived there for 10 months. He also stated that one of his sons was living in Goulburn, which may be the reason he was living there. It was also not far from Bundanoon (see below for application form).
By 1916, Adolph was calling himself Professor Poulsen. He had returned to Lismore to conduct an orchestra in accompaniment of a play:
Northern Star (Lismore) Mon 28 Aug 1916 p4:
A large audience greeted the initial production of the Metro-Art picture "The High Road", at the Federal Hall on Saturday night. The realistic scene depicting the terrible fire at the factory, where the girls had been locked in by the manager and the subsequent rescue by the fire brigades, fairly carried the audience away. The music rendered by the orchestra under the direction of Professor Poulsen was of high merit. During the interval, Professor Poulsen rendered a violin solo "Une Petite Plainte" by Poussard. The same programme with be shown to-night.
And again, he performed in Lismore in October 1916- Northern Star, Tues 10 October 1916 p4:
A large and appreciative audience attended the sacred concert given by the Lismore Citizen's Band, assisted by local vocalists and instrumentalists last Sunday night. The solos, which were of a purely sacred nature, were rendered in such a manner as to gain the entire approbation of the audience. The programme...... Mr A. Poulsen displayed great ability in his violin solo "Reverie", by Veuxtemps, receiving well deserved applause.
In 1921, Adolph Poulsen was employed by the Steamship Company of New Zealand on their passenger cargo vessel, the 'Makura'. He is listed in the manifest of crew members on four trips between Sydney and Hawaii in July, August, November and December 1921, the first two as a 1st Grade Steward, and the second two as a musician to entertain the passengers. The 'Makura' was the first steamship specifically built for the Sydney-Vancouver passenger service, catering for 207 first class, 114 second class and 72 third class passengers. Early the following year he remarried, so does not appear to have continued with this job.
Adolph first applied for Naturalization in 1915 which was granted, and in 1922 Adolph applied for the new Certificate of Naturalization under the new Nationality Act of 1920. At that time he was living at 7 Challis Flats, Challis Avenue, Potts Point, Sydney.
He described himself as 62 yrs of age, 5 ft 6 in., dark brown hair and brown eyes.
The timing of Adolph's first application is interesting. Within one week of the declaration of war with Germany in August 1914, all German subjects in Australia were declared 'enemy aliens' and were required to report to the Government and notify their address. By February 1915, it also included naturalised migrants as well as Australian born persons whose fathers or grandfathers had been born in Germany or Austria, and the Government pursued a policy of selective internment, targeting leaders of the German Australian community including pastors of the Lutheran Church and businessmen. Some were accused of being disloyal by neighbours and dobbed into the police. As Adolph had very German sounding names, maybe this was the reason he took out naturalization, declaring he was of Danish nationality not German.
He also stated in his application in June 1915 that:
Since his arrival in Australia, he had resided at Mackay 3 years, took the Oath of Allegiance to HM Queen Victoria and served in the Volunteer Force, Southport QLD 5 years, Lismore NSW 4 years, Sydney 20 years, Goulburn 10 months (where his son was residing at the time).
Adolph Poulsen's second Marriage:
Adolph remarried 27 February 1922 to Frances Daisy Bevill (widow):
It is unknown what happened to Frances, and she is not named in his funeral notice. Nor was she living with him in Brougham Street Darlinghurst in the 1930 Electoral Roll. There is no death record in the NSW BDM for a Frances Poulsen.
Frances Daisy Bevill nee Watts was the widow of Frederick Bevill M.A. who died in 1911 aged 63 at his home in Randwick. She had married him in 1901, a year after his first wife died (viz. Annie, by whom he had a daughter Florence in 1878). Frederick's obituary stated that "he was well known in scholastic circles and many of the leading citizens claim him as their educational mentor". "He was recognized as a capable mathemaritic and newspaper dramatic critic of high attainment." He was also secretary for about 10 years of the Licensed Victuallers' Association. In the early 1880's he was headmaster of Royston College in Woolloomooloo, but became insolvent in 1886 (having earlier been insolvent in 1877). A Cambridge graduate, he had edited a paper in China and Japan. In Sydney he often gave public lectures on scientific subjects such as the tides, the arctic ice and icebergs, the coral reef, etc, and even hypnotism and mesmerism.
In 1924, Adolph appears to be living at or visiting Parkes, although without a forename in the articles, the relevance is uncertain:
In the Western Champion, Parkes, Thurs 20 March 1924 p9:
The National Concert in the Parkes Picture Palace in the evening brought a 'perfect day' to a fitting conclusion. The large hall was well filled with a thoroughly representative and sympathetic audience, who apparently enjoyed every item of the diversified programme which was presented...... A violin solo by Mr Poulsen 'St Patricks Day' with Yankee Doodle' as an encore followed.
This was followed on Thur 26 June 1924 p13 (Western Champion) with:
On Tuesday night a very successful "Shilling Pop" in aid of the funds of the Parents and Citizens Association was held at the P.P.P. There was an excellent attendance and the fine programme presented was arranged by Mrs Smiles. The programme was as follows: Duet, Professor Poulsen and Edgar Smiles.... Violin trio. Miss Madge Sanders,Jack Davis and Professor Poulsen
By 1929 he was living at 126 Brougham Street, Kings Cross, Darlinghurst. A Mrs Mayhew of 45 King's Cross Road handed Adolph's violin to the curator of the Technical Museum in 1932, and handled his correspondence with the curator due to Adolph's illness. In 1930, Adolph's son Theodore was living in nearby Wylde Road, Darlinghurst with his wife Lillian.
Adolph Poulsen's death
Adolph and son, Raymond, who died 10 years before, were buried in the same grave #2282, Section 17 (Roman Catholic).
The large family grave has a very elaborate memorial covered with Irish Catholic symbols, and is positioned overlooking the sea. As Katherine and her son Raymond share the same marble plaque, it would appear that Adolph must have had the elaborate memorial constructed after his son's death in 1922. Adolph's plain plaque is on the ground below his son, while Stephen Tobin's equally plain plaque is on the ground below his daughter Katherine. There is no plaque for son Theodore who was the last to be buried in the plot.
The two semi-headstones on either side of the central carving may have been cut down from the two original headstones of Katherine and Stephen's original graves. Interestingly, even though the memorial was constructed by a Dane who had converted from Lutheranism to Catholicism, the memorial is purely Irish Catholicism in its symbolism. (see symbolism explanation at bottom of this chapter)
Katherine's plaque is rather touching, with the words:
"Sleep darling- sleep and take thy rest"
MYRA LILLIAN POULSEN was born 1892 in Lismore, New South Wales, Australia, and died on 9 October 1948 in Brisbane Queensland, Australia. She married PHILIP ROWLING NOTT on 11 September 1916 in Sydney, NSW, son of PHILIP NOTT and MARTHA WRIGHT of Brisbane (see Nott Family History blog- link below). He was born 7 May 1887 in Brisbane Queensland, Australia, and died 1945 in Brisbane Queensland, Australia.
Myra is buried at South Brisbane Cemetery.
Blog on Nott family:
Children of MYRA POULSEN and PHILIP NOTT:
ANCESTRY OF LARS POULSEN, FATHER OF FERDINAND ADOLPH POULSEN
Adolph played violin at professional level, and considering that his father’s occupation was a manual one, listed as a ‘travelling bricklayer’ in the Danish Census records, questions arise as to how the family managed to purchase an expensive antique violin by one of the world’s renowned violin makers, and pay for expensive violin lessons. The answer appears to come from Adolph’s paternal grandmother’s family and their ancestry.
The following records follow the Dreyer family back to the 1600's, and also Lars Poulsen Senior's family.
He was born in Skovhusene, in Esbonderup Parish. The record states that Sophie was from Helsingor, Esbǿnderup Parish in the County of Fredericksborg, but was living in the home of Anders Nielson at the time of the birth/baptism. The father of the child was named as Lars Poulsen, a ‘huckster’ living in Helsingor.
Date of Birth: Sunday 28 December 1823
Child's full name: Lars Poulsen.
Baptism Date either in church or at home: January 1, 1824 at home., January 18, 1824 in the Church
Parents' name and residence: Unmarried Sophie Dreyer, from Helsingøer, living in the house of Anders Nielsen in Skovhusene
Notably, her name in other records is ‘Edel Sophia’.
Witnesses were officers in the military, and several 'cancellists, which is an administrative officer.
Holmen is the suburb of Copenhagen where they lived, near the naval area on Holmens Canal.
(SEE FULL ANCESTRAL TREE BELOW FOR FREDERIKKE SOPHIE LANGSTED)
Married: Anna Elisabeth Haman 3 June 1722 at Odense, Skt Knuds, d.15 March 1769 (dau of Christian Haman [1673-1728, occupation: Kobmand og oldermand/merchant and alderman in Odense and Sara Rasmusdatter Ǿstrup [died 17 November 1747] who was daughter of Rasmus Adamsen [b.1640 d.1701 Odense- occup: haulage] and Sara Pedersdatter Ǿstrup [d.1732 Odense- the village of Østrup is about 15 kms north of Odense, so the family probably originated from there].
Issue: Sara Dreyer; Hans Jensen Dreyer; Christian Haman Dreyer; Woldborg Dreyer; Daniel Dreyer; Margareta Sophia Dreyer; Christiane Dreyer; Catharina Dreyer; Peder Dreyer
Jens Dreyer and his wife Anna Elisabeth Haman, and her parents Christian Haman and Sara Ǿstrup, and Jens Dreyer's mother Woldborg Jensdatter Meyer (with 2nd husband Rasmus Lauritsen) were buried in Odense Cathedral, also called St Canute's Cathedral. The cathedral dates back 900 years. The Danish king Canute the Saint and his brother Benedict were killed by the people in 1086 at the High Altar of the local priory. The cathedral was built on the same site two centuries later. Canute was canonised as a saint and is the patron saint of Denmark. Canute's and Benedict's bones are in the cathedral, as are King Hans (d.1513), his son King Christian II and their queens and two sons. The cathedral has undergone several refurbishments down the centuries including in 1754, just after the Dreyers and Hamans were buried inside the cathedral. Many of the graves and wall monuments have since been re-positioned, but the Dreyer tombstone is one of only seven of the older original stones that survive in its original state (others have been cut down or rewritten), and the Haman's wall monument is one of only 23 that survive. The Dreyer stone is located in the crypt where the bones of St Canute and his brother Benedict are on display along with the graves of the kings. They were obviously high status families in Odense.
The monuments are featured in an article on Danish churches- Odense (pages 782, 808, 812, 883/84, 902/903):
Grey limestone, 212x116 cm. Inscription with rapt capitals, names italicized capital letters;
traces of black padding. Over scripture field immersed field with relief of the Risen Christ
with victory tab, framed by cloud formations; Future bottom impersonation, flanked by two
stumps and equipped with quill, blackboard, laugh and overhead an hourglass. Frame Away with foliage and seashells with inmates hjørnemedaljoner, which can be seen the four evangelist characters, all with scrolls by name in rapt capitals; top . Matthew and John, at the bottom Markus and Lukas.
1844 (Mumme 170). After 1875 in the second subject of the crypt southern transept.
Danish inscription in relief capitals, names, however, in italics, all in recessed, horizontal bands. The inscription, culminating in scripture (Rev. 14.13), framed of the portal-like frame formed by båndakantus, between which the larger leaf ornaments, single flowers or flower displays. In the portal bow a crown, flanked by two putti with palm branches, crown (TV.) and trombone (th.). .
Originally located in the middle of the ship's third mainstay in sydrækken (h1), west of the pulpit and close the family burial no. VI, the fourth For with Herholdt restoration moved to the south wall, directly next to the earlier location, ie the southern side ship 7. subjects east of window.
Dreyer floor tombstone at G7 (in crypt) and Haman wall monument at E20.
The six royal graves are marked K, and the two glass cases holding the bones of St Canute and brother Benedict, in crypt near G8.
Haman gravestone at G21, and post medieval Haman family graves at column 'hi'.
Dreyer post medieval family graves near G18 under stairs.
Woldborg Jensdatter Meyer, mother of Jens Dreyer, buried with 2nd husband Rasmus Lauritsen at G24.
(father of Jens Hansen Dreyer), and WOLDBORG JENSDATTER MEYER
and www.geni.com/people/Hans-Dreyer/5078951621410134723 )
The island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea to the east of Denmark has in the past, been fought over by Sweden and Denmark during the 1600's. The main industries on the island included fishing, arts and crafts such as glass production and pottery, and dairy farming. The topography of the island consists of dramatic rock formations in the north, sloping down towards pine forests and deciduous forests and farmlands in the middle, and sandy beaches in the south. There is a ruin of Hammershus fortress in the NW tip of the island, the largest medieval fortress in northern Europe, a testament to the importance of its location.
Lars Poulsen Junior was the illegitimate son of Edel Sophie (known as Sophie) Dreyer and Lars Poulsen Senior. He was born in December 1823 in the county of Frederiksborg which is north of Copenhagen on the island of Zealand. Sophie came from a respectable family living in the town of Helsingor (Elsinore in English) and her unplanned pregnancy probably shamed her family, so she was sent to the home of Anders Nielson who lived in a small village of Skovhuse near Esbonderup, a few miles west of Helsingor, to have her baby. Notably a hospital was in Esbonderup. What relation Anders Nielson was to the family is unknown, but he was named as one of the godparents. Sophie's father was employed in the bureau of the Admiralty and the Commissariat , and his ancestors were respected members of the local community in Odense on the neighbouring island of Fyn, and were elected town councilors. Sophie married Christian Frederick Rudolph Beyer, a brick layer, in 1833, but just five years later Sophie died, leaving her 15 year old son with her husband. Beyer must have taken Lars as his apprentice as Lars also became a brick layer. It would appear that Lars had nothing to do with his sire Lars Poulsen senior who had also married but remained in Helsingor where he had a grocer's shop and then an inn.
Information on marriage record: 17 Sept 1833, Helsingor St Maria Church, Fredericksborg
Lars Poulsen, 43, Spækhǿker (ie. profession as a huckster), widower, marries Catharine Magrethe Nǿdskou 36 "jomfrue" (ie. unmarried but older than a young woman). witnesses Kjǿbmand Brandt and Brygger Sǿren Hansen.
Anne Backe had a child, presumed illegitimate, named Ane Kirstine Magrethe Smidtz, Chr. 22 April 1816, father only named as Smidtz. She then married Lars Poulsen on 17 March 1819 in Helsingor.
Information from the baptism record (thanks to Morten for this information):
Brenderup Sogn: den 8 Octob confirmeret Daaben over Povel Jǿrgensens Barn frq Bro kaldet Lars frembaaren af Sogne Præ
October 8 (1789), confirmed the baptism of Povel Jǿrgensens child from (the village) of Bro, named Lars. The child was held by (godmother) Constance Alexandrine (the daughter of the parish priest). The witnesses were Lars Gregersen the mother's father from the village Brenderup, Hans Jensen, Niels Henricsen, Jorgen Andersen's wife and Hans Smed's wife, all from the village of Bro.
The record above names Lars' mother, Maren Larsdatter as the daughter of Lars Gregersen of Brenderup.
In the 1801 Census, Lars Gregersen, aged 69 (b.1732), 'landless farmer of hops', was living with his second wife Anne Margrethe Jespersdatter, aged 49, and his son Jorgen Larsen aged 21, and their children Jesper Larsen 14, Karen Margrethe Larsdatter 10.
His brother, Mikkel Gregersen aged 67 and his wife Maren Andersdatter 70, live next door.
In the 1787 Census, Lars Gregersen, aged 52 (b.1735), farmer and labourer, was living at Brenderup with his second wife Anna Jespersdatter 37, and "children of his first marriage", Anna Maria Larsdatter 14, Christen Larsen 12, Johanna Margreta Larsdatter 9, and Jorgen Larsen 7.
So the marriage must have been recent, as their first child Jesper was born later that year.
Daughter Maren Larsdatter, 21 was living with the vicar of Brenderup, Rasmus Edsberg 66, his wife and daughters including Constance Alexandrina Edsberg aged 12 who would become the godmother of Maren's son Lars Poulsen. Maren was employed as a servant, the cook, for the Edsberg family. There were several servants employed by the Edsbergs.
Living next door to Lars Gregersen was his brother Michel Gregersen aged 51 and wife, and nearby was an elder brother Niels Gregersen, aged 56, wife and two children.
Maren, daughter of Lars Gregersen, was baptised on 10 August 1766 at Brenderup:
(Ref: Enesteministerialbog 1705 FVD-1801, Brenderup Sogn- p64)
If these records are relevant, then Lars was the son of Poul/Poval Jorgensen from the village of Bro which is between the towns of Brenderup and Bogense. Poul's wife in the Census was named Maren Larsdatter daughter of Lars Gregersen of Brenderup. Notably Maren is 21 years younger than her husband (so maybe a second marriage for Poul). Poul was aged 56 in 1801, ie born 1745, while Maren was aged 34, ie. born in 1766. They also have four younger children in 1801 Census: Karen 9, Frederiche 5, Hans, 2 and Rasmus 1.
RECORDS FOR CHARLOTTE FREDERIKKE GUDMUNDSEN (wife of Lars Poulsen Jnr)
Baptismal record of Charlotte and twin sister Ingeborg (born on 25 November 1825 and Christened on 17 March 1826 January 1826)
In the 1840 Census, Charlotte is listed with her family in Copenhagen. Her widowed father is named as Thorlak Gudmunsen, aged 53, a 'Stolemagermester', which is a 'master chair maker/manufacturer/repairer' (as 'mester' means trained craftsman with his own firm, he probably would have employed others). There is also her twin sister Ingeborg and younger brother Rasmus living with them. Her elder brother Magnus is living elsewhere, with Johan Schmidt, a master blacksmith (who appears to have been his half-brother, son of his mother's first marriage), Magnus, aged 17, described as a "laere dreng" (apprentice)- by 1845 he was listed as a bricklayer's apprentice. The fact that Charlotte's elder brother was a bricklayer, may be the reason she met Lars Poulsen, also a bricklayer. There are four other families living at this address in the census.
By the next census in 1845, Thorlac is no longer listed. Charlotte was working as a maid for Army Captain Christian Walther.
In fact, there are no further records of Thorlak Gudmunsen, so one could assume he was dead.
1840 Danish Census
Mother: Charlotte Friderikke Kjaer, who was dead before 1840 (Thorlac described as a widower in the 1840 Census), was married before, in c.1810.There are records for three children of Charlotte Friderike Kjaer and Johan Gottlieb Schmidt also baptised at Trinitatis, Kobenhavn where her other children were baptised:
Charlotte Frideriche Johansen Chr. 30 Dec 1810;
Caroline Wilhelmine Johansen Chr. 29 Sept 1814;
Johan Gottlieb Johansen (Schmidt) Chr. 1 August 1819.
Charlotte Kjaer married Thorlach Gudmundsen on 7 December 1821 at Trinitatis Church in Kobenhavn. They were both aged 35 years, and it confirms Charlotte's previous married name of Schmidt. The two records below are from the original Trinitatis Parish records:
Marriages of Charlotte's siblings, and issue:
1. Magnus Thorlak Gudmundsen married Juliane Marie Hansen and had issue: Ottogine Nathalie Gudmundsen Chr 20 June 1858 at Garnisons Parish Copenhagen; Juliane Marie Gudmundsen Chr 22 July 1860 at Holmen's Parish Copenhagen; Thorlach Emanuel Gudmunsen Chr 2 November 1862 at Fredericksberg, Copenhagen; Edvard Bern Hard Gudmunsen Chr 13 Sept 1868 at Fredericksberg, Copenhagen.
By the 1880 Census, his wife Juliane is described as a widow.
Magnus's occupation was a bricklayer
2. Rasmus Christian Gudmundsen married Grethe Dorthe Kirstine Nielsdatter (b.1827) on 10 April 1856 at Frue Kirke Kobenhavn. A daughter, Valborg Margrethe Gudmundsen was born 26 June 1859 at Garnisons Parish Kobenhavn to Rasmus Christian Gudmundsen and Dorthea Borresen, so presumably this was their daughter.
Rasmus's occupation was a plumber
The 1850 Census has an Ingeborg Gudmunsen, 24, widow, occupation- maid, living with another widow, Emilie Stange 33 at St Anne's Gothergade, Copenhagen- whether this is Charlotte's sister is unconfirmed. Coincidentally, on the same page, there is a Thorleif Gudmandson Repp from Rejkjavik, Iceland, translater aged 56, his wife and children aged 19, 16, and 7. They are also listed in the 1845 Census with an elder daughter as well.)
The origins of Thorlak Gudmundsen
The 1840 census, and the birth records of his children are the only records yet found on Thorlak that can be confirmed. Strangely he does not appear in the 1787, 1801, 1803, 1834/5 , 1845, 1850, 1860 Danish Census records, nor does his name appear in the Danish Birth records.
However, there are two possible scenarios for his birth that show in the records.
The first record which may be relevant is a marriage record in Copenhagen for a man of the same name, but born a generation before, and therefore could be his father, or related- notably in Garnisons Parish which is the same parish in which his son Magnus's first child was baptised. Garnison's Church is also known as the Garrison Church, built in the 17th century for military personnel.
There is wide discrepancy in the spelling of his forename and surname. In just three of the records below it is spelt Thorlak, Torlak and Thorland.
This Thorlak Gudmandsen married Maren Nielsdatter. Note the two dates differ which could indicate the first on 9 April 1784 was a betrothal record, and the second on 12 May 1784 the marriage date:
There is a baptism record for their daughter, Ellen Kirstine on 6 February 1785. Notably the baptism is recorded at Garnisons Parish in the volume of German baptismal records, not the volume of Danish baptismal records for this parish. And again, the spelling of her father's name is now 'Thorland'- his profession is described as 'Arbeitsm(and)/Arbejdsmand' which is a labourer.
As our Thorlak was aged 35 when he married in December 1821, and age 53 in the 1840 Census, his birth year was circa 1786, which would be appropriate with the above records, so this would appear to be the most relevant. The fact that the two names are the same which does not match the Danish naming system (where one would expect his father to be named Gudmund ____ ), is problematic, although there are exceptions, viz. Lars Poulsen and his father Lars Poulsen. Until the act of surnames changed in 1828, the practice was: the surname of the son was his fathers name + sen ( in very old time "søn", later on "søn" changed to "sen" in Denmark/Norway, but "son" in Sweden).; and + datter (daughter) if the child was a girl eg. the daughter above named as 'Ellen Thorlandsdatter'.
This family does not appear in the 1787 Census, however, they do appear in the 1801 Census, and notably there is no son listed as living with them. Torlak's name has the 'K' and 'L' switched to spell 'Terkel', incorrectly, but he is with his wife Maren Nielsen and daughter Ellen Christine. Torlak is revealed as a sailor in the Danish Navy, living in Delfingade/Delfin Street in the Nyboder area which was built by Christian IV as barrack accommodation for his naval personnel (common sailors) and their families. The accommodation was generally small- only two rooms and an attic, plus shared kitchen and toilet/bathroom facilities. In the record (below), Torlak and family are quartered with Christian Moller and family plus a third woman.
The fact that there is no son listed would seem to indicate that this is not our Thorlak's family, but can't be completely discounted as young Thorlak could have been apprenticed, or in the navy, and living elsewhere, as, by 1801 he was turning 15. Notably the daughter Ellen Christine's age is incorrect and should have been 16.
The elder Torlak's age of 38 means he was born c.1763.
There is also a record in the 1787 Census of a Thor Gudmonsen, aged 51 (b.c.1736), but "single" living as a lodger in Snaren's Quarter, Copenhagen, with Ole Simensen 53, a merchandiser, and his wife. Thor is described as a "timber Svend". Again, this could be irrelevant.
However there is also an alternative record. The name Thorlak is very uncommon in Denmark, and originates from Norway, but it is also a common name in Iceland, where sons are often named after the patron saint of Iceland, St Thorlak who lived there in the 13th century. Looking at Icelandic BDM records, there are several records of the name 'Thorlak Gudmundsson' in the 1700's, including a birth in 1787 in southern Iceland.
It is possible that Thorlak was born in Iceland and emigrated to Denmark as either a child, or as an adult. Or, alternatively, the Torlak Gudmansen in the 1784 marriage record above, may have been the one to emigrate to Denmark and/or to join the Danish naval service. It should be noted that Iceland was under Danish rule, and in 1783, there was a catastrophic event when there was a volcanic eruption at Mt Laki. This was the world's second largest volcanic eruption in the past 1000 years. At the time, the population of Iceland was 50,000, and in the ensuing years, 10,000 of those people would die as a result of the explosion. Laki is a volcanic system in the south-east of Iceland, and in 1783 it was ripped open with such force that a huge fissure produced scores of boiling craters, and over the next eight months, it spewed lava over 600 square kilometers, and belched more toxic gases than any eruption in the last 150 years. The effects of the eruption were felt all over the northern hemisphere. People died because of starvation, as the farm animals died and the crops died, affecting the whole country. The toxic gases poisoned the plants and vegetation and thus the livestock. Eight out of ten sheep are thought to have died and half of all cattle and horses perished. Extreme heat caused by the sulphuric gases, then turned into extreme winters caused by the build-up of heat absorbing sulphur dioxide in the stratosphere. The gases also drifted over Europe, causing 20,000 deaths in Britain alone. The volcanic eruption at Mt Laki was only about 60 kms from the area where the family of Thorlak Gudmundson lived, in the county of Rangarcallasysla in southern Iceland.
Whether Thorlak, (or his possible father, Thorlak Gudmansen), emigrated to Denmark from Iceland can't be verified but the following records should not be discounted, particularly as the birth year matches, and the events described above could account for his emigration to Denmark.
There are several baptismal records for Gudmundur Sigurdsson between 1744 and 1765, so too difficult to pinpoint the correct record.
Apart from son, Thorlakur Gudmundsson Chr. 3 Feb 1787, this couple also had children:
i) Thorlakur Gudmundsson Chr. 12 June 1784 at Eyvindarmuli, Rangarvallasysla (notably the year after the eruption, so probably died, and their second son born in 1787, was named after him.)
ii) Gudny Gudmundsson Chr 17 Oct 1782 at Eyvindarmuli, Rangarvallasysla
iii) Magnus Gudmundsson Chr. 20 July 1795 at Eyvindarmuli, Rangarvallasysla
(notably Magnus is the chosen name of Thorlac's eldest son)
The place named on these records is Eyvindarmuli in the county of Rangarvallasysla.
Eyvindarmuli is a parish in the south of the island, in the county of Rangarvallasysla, as marked on the map.
However, the first record of the marriage in 1784 of Thorlak Gudmandsen in Copenhagen, referred to above, could also be relevant. And as discussed, it is also possible that he emigrated to Denmark following the volcanic eruption in 1783, and married in Denmark the following year.
As stated, there are several marriages for men of that name during the 1700's in Iceland, so the name appears to be a common one in Iceland, unlike Denmark where it is rare.
There is also the following baptism in Iceland (Family Search) which may be relevant. (NB. the different spellings in Iceland, using sson instead of sen on the end of the surname- this would revert to the Danish custom on records if he emigrated:
Notably, he had two siblings:
i) Sigurdr Gudmundsson bap 28 Jan 1755 at Reykjavik, Gullbringusysla, father Gudmund Myrahusum,
and, possibly a twin sister,
ii) Ingebiorg Gudmundsson, bap 9 March 1755 at Reykjavik, Gullbringusysla, father Gudmund Myrarhusum
Possibly the origin of Charlotte's twin sister's name of Ingeborg, and also the twin gene which occurs with our Charlotte and Ingeborg?
Or, records of Thorlak Gudmunsen in Denmark may be lost, or not yet discovered. Given that his children were born between 1823 and 1829, it is strange that the family does not appear in the 1834/35 Census's. Maybe they had left the country at that particular time, and returned by 1840. It could also be explained if Thorlak came from Norway and travelled back and forth.
Rasmus Adamsen born 1640 at Odense on the Danish island of Fyn and his wife Sarah Ǿstrup who died 1732 Odense. They married in 1670 in Odense.
The DNA test also proves without doubt that Ferdinand Adolph Poulsen was a genetic descendant of the Dreyers and Hamans, and Rasmus Adamsen and Sarah Ǿstrup, dating back to the mid 17th century, without any unexpected Non-Paternity Events in the direct line.
© B A Butler
Link back to Introduction:
Links to all other chapters in this blog:
Tobin and Driscoll family in Tipperary Ireland
Tobin family settle in Gerringong, NSW, Australia in 1857
Tobin family settle in Tallebudgera Queensland in 1870
Life at Tallebudgera for the Tobin Family until 1892
Tobin family move back to NSW and Western Australia- deaths of Stephen and Mary
Stephen Tobin's sister Catherine Tobin- marriage to Timothy Guinea
Bushrangers in the family
Stephen Tobin's sister Ellen Tobin- an Irish female orphan immigrant in 1850
Stephen Tobin's daughter Katherine Tobin- marriage to Adolph Poulsen
Sons of Stephen Tobin and Mary Driscoll
Daughters of Stephen Tobin and Mary Driscoll
Irish Roots of Tobins, Driscolls, O'Briens, and Whites