23 March 2013

Stephen Tobin- Ch:10- daughter Katherine POULSEN

KATHERINE MARY TOBIN was  born on 08 April 1865 in Gerringong, NSW (NSW 9690/1865),  Australia, daughter of Stephen Tobin and Mary Driscoll. She died on 16 August 1901 in Waverley, Sydney, NSW (NSW 11806/1901). She married FERDINAND ADOLPH GEORGE POULSEN on 19 May 1886 at Southport/Nerang, Queensland (QLD 1886/C959), son of Lars Poulsen and Charlotte Fredrikke Gudmundsen of Denmark. He was born  on 12 January 1860 and baptised in the Lutheran Church on 03 July 1860 in Copenhagen Denmark (Denmark BDM Records online- https://www.sa.dk/brug-arkivet/ao/arkivalieronline)
Adolph died on 08 Jul 1932 in Sydney, NSW (NSW BDM Reg. 13563/1932).


Ferdinand Adolph Poulsen, known as Adolph to his family and friends, was born on 12 January 1860 at No 14-15 Smallgade Street in  Frederiksberg, an enclave surrounded by Copenhagen, Denmark to Lars Poulsen and Charlotte Fredrikke Gudmundsen. He was Christened in the Lutheran church on 3 July 1860. He had two older brothers, August Waldemar Poulsen who was born in 1851, and Carl Christian Julius Poulsen in 1853 (died 1860), in Ballerup Parish in Copenhagen, and two sisters, Elvine b.1855 and Adleheid b.1857.

In the 1844 Census, their mother, Charlotte Gudmundsen, one of twins, was a servant/maid.

In the 1855 Danish  Census, their father, Lars Poulsen, was described as a "murersvend" or bricklayer (although on his marriage record, he described his father as a stonemason), "-svend" means he was "educated". In the 1860 Census, he is described as a "murermester" which means he was a self-employed bricklayer.  "Murer" can mean mason and bricklayer, but the "stone-work" or bricklaying is connected with house building, possibly with bricks made of stone. (NB. compare with the word "stenhugger" which means stonemason.)
As Copenhagen was a fast growing city, he would find a lot of employment as a bricklayer in the inner city. Strangely, no census records of Lars Poulsen have yet been found in the 1870, 1880 and 1885 census records, yet he appears to have been still living there.

1855 Census

1860 Census

Parents and siblings of Adolph Poulsen:

LARS POULSEN was born 28 December 1823 in Esbonderup in the county of Frederiksborg, a few miles north of Copenhaven, on the island of Zealand, Denmark, and died Unknown in Denmark. 
The County of Fredericksborg in the north of the island of Zealand should not be confused with Fredericksberg, an enclave surrounded by the city of Copenhagen and informally considered part of Copenhagen, also now considered the most prestigious area to live in.
He married CHARLOTTE FREDRIKKE GUDMUNDSEN on 01 June  1851 in Frederiksberg, Copenhaven,  Denmark.  She, and her twin sister Ingeborg,  were born on 25 November 1825 and Christened on 17 March 1826 January 1826 in Copenhaven, Denmark (at Trinitatis Sogn), and died Unknown in Denmark (after 1880). 

She was the daughter of Thorlak Gudmunsen and Charlotte Friderikke Kjaer. Charlotte also had two brothers, Magnus and Rasmus. 
In the 1845 CensusCharlotte Gudmundsen, aged 19 (b.1826), born at Copenhaven/Copenhagen, was working as a servant/maid for Captain Walther of the 6th Infantry Battalion and his family in Copenhaven. There is no record of Lars in this Census. 

In the 1850 CensusCharlotte, 25, was a servant in the household of Carl Jacobsen, butcher and Lorentzine Stauning his wife and their five children aged between 1 and 12, living in Fredericksberg.
Their family history is outlined at the bottom of this page. 

Lars was the son of unmarried mother Edel Sophie Dreyer; his sire was also named Lars Poulsen. The Dreyer family of Helsingor (known as Elsinore in English) was a well-to-do family, so her pregnancy must have been a shock to the family and she was sent to the house of an Anders Nielsen at the small village of Skovhuse in Esbonderup a few miles inland of Helsingor to give birth. Both the Dreyer and the Poulsen family came from the neighbouring island of Odense, and the ancestry of these families is extensively explored at the bottom of this page.

NB. Copenhagen is spelt Cobenhaven or Kǿbenhavns in Danish.

Map of Denmark- County of Frederiksborg top right, above Copenhagen, on the island of Zealand
Odense County on the Island of Fyn, to the west of Zealand, and east of Jutland

Map of County of Frederiksborg (north Zealand)- Esbǿnderup top centre
- birthplace of Lars Poulsen
Helsingǿr on far east coast, home of Lars' parents

 Lars was married to Charlotte Gudmundsen in June 1851 at Frederiksberg Parish in Copenhagen. They were Lutherans.

(Danish Archives- Frederiksberg Sogn- Hovedministerialbog p49)

(Also a second record:)

(Danish Archives- Fredericksberg Sogn- Kontraministerialbog p87)

For the translation of this record, I have to thank distant relative, Morten Stryhn of Denmark:

Original from the Ministerial Book:
Ungkarl Lars Poulsen, 27 4/12 Aar, Murer af Hvidovre. Pigen Charlotte Frederiche Gudmundsen, 25 5/12 Aar af Vesterbro. (Forlovere): Gjestgiver og Traktør Lars Petersen, Frdbg Smallegade N. 12 (og) Værtshuusholder L. Jespersen, Vesterbro N. 35 (Vielse) 1. Juni (1851) i Kirken.

Bachelor Lars Poulsen, age 27 4/12 years, bricklayer living in the area of Hvidovre. The girl, Charlotte Gudmundsen, aged 25 5/12, living in Vesterbro
Best man of Lars Pouslen: Lars Petersen, pub owner, Fredericksberg, Smallegade No 12.
Best man of Charlotte Gudmundsen: L. Jespersen, pub owner, of Vesterbro No 35
The wedding took place in Frederiksberg, Kirke/Church on 1 June 1851.

In October of that year their first son named  August Waldemar was born, so was conceived before their marriage.

Their second son Carl Christian Julius was born in August 1853, at Ballerup district, Copenhaven. He sadly died aged six, in 1860, just two months after the birth of brother Ferdinand.

In the 1855 Census, Lars, aged 31, was described as a  bricklayer, living in Utterslev, Bronshej, Sokkelund, with his wife Charlotte, housewife aged 29, their children August, aged 4 and Carl aged 2, and Charlotte's twin sister Ingeborg also 29. 

Daughter Elvine Florentine Nathalia Poulsen was Christened 2 December 1855 at Bronshoj, Kobenhavn (FHL microfilm 44,270)

Daughter Adleheid Eleonore Augusta Poulsen was christened 3 May 1857 at Bronshoj, Kobenhavn

In 1860 their third son Ferdinand Adolph George Poulsen was born at Frederiksberg, a suburb of Copenhagen. (He is not recorded in the 1860 Census- see above)

Danish Baptism record of Ferdinand Adolph Poulsen- b. 12 January 1860; bap. 3 July 1860
 (Danish Archives- Fredericksberg Sogn- Hovedministerialbog p17)

Also (second record No 10):

(Danish Archives- Frederiksberg Sogn- Kontraministerialbog p112)

IGI Baptism Record

There is a church Confirmation record in Holmen's Church for  Ferdinand Adolf Poulsen in 1874:
Confirmation April 19, 1874 in Holmen's Church, Holmen's Sogn, Sokkelund Herred, Copenhagen County Denmark: 
Ferdinand Adolf Georg Poulsen, Ǿstergade 20. 
Parents: Murer, Lars Poulsen, Charlotte Frederikke Gudmundsen.
(Murer= bricklayer) However, he is not living in Ǿstergade 20 (centre of Copenhagen) in the 1870 or 1880 census.

                                                                  Holmen's Church

There are no further records of the family in the Census records after 1860 until the 1880 Census, when Charlotte Gudmundsen is listed as a convict at a prison in Copenhaven, and divorced from husband Lars Poulsen. Lars is not listed in the Census.

Fraskilt = divorced; Straffefange = convict

Christianshavn was originally a reform school for orphans, founded in 1605, but over time the home was also used as a penal institution for adults, known as the women's prison in Christianshavn. It is not known what crime she committed or how long she was there.

The Original Census record gives the following information:

1 February 1880: Straffeanstalten ("Kvindefaengslet"), Bǿrnehustorvet 1B, Christianshavn, Kǿbenhavns Amt, Danmark: 
31) Charlotte Frederikke Gudmundsen Poulsens sye Hustru, Kvinde, 54 (år), FFraskilt, Lutheran, (fǿdested) Kǿbenhavn, Straffefange, (fange nr) 90, (vielse) 1850, 4 (levende bǿrn), 2 (dǿde bǿrn).
Google translation:
1 February 1880: Criminal Institution ("Kvindefaengslet"), Bǿrnehustorvet 1B, Christianshavn, Kǿbenhavns County, Denmark: 
31) Charlotte Frederikke Gudmundsen Poulsens sick Wife, Woman, 54 (years), divorced, Lutheran, (fǿdested) Kǿbenhavn, convict, (convict No.) 90, (marriage) 1850, 4 (live bǿrn), 2 (dead bǿrn).
The census tells us that Charlotte is the mother of 6 children, two of whom had died. The remark, "Poulsens sye Hunstru" or "Poulsens sick wife" is odd- does it refer to her physical or mental state? And it mentions Poulsen's 'wife' despite the divorce. It also appears to indicate that the census recorder knew Poulsen.

Prisoners exercising at Christianshavn Women's Prison
Royal Library Copenhagen- photo by Peter Elfelt (1866-1931)


i.AUGUST WALDEMAR THEODOR POULSEN, b. 09 October 1851, Copenhaven, Denmark; d.Unknown (possibly in QLD, Australia).  Baptism: 23 November 1851

ii. CARL CHRISTIAN JULIUS POULSEN, b. 26 August  1853, Ballerup district, Copenhaven.  d. 22 March 1860 at Smallgade nos 14 & 15 (street), Fredericksberg, Copenhagen, buried 25 March in new cemetery Frijord.

iii. ELVINE FLORENTINE NATHALIA POULSEN, Ch. 2 December 1855, Bronshoj, Kobenhavn, d. unknown (LDS_FHL microfilm 44,270)

iv. ADELHEID ELEONORE AUGUSTA POULSEN, Ch. 3 May 1857, Bronshoj, Kobenhavn, d. unknown (FHL microfilm 44,270)

v. FERDINAND ADOLPH GEORGE POULSEN, b. 12 January  1860, Copenhagen Denmark; d. 08 July  1932, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

birth and baptism record of Adolph's brother August Poulsen

The eldest son, August Poulsen, emigrated to Australia on the Reichstag, leaving from Hamburg Germany on 12 November 1870, arriving in Maryborough/Hervey Bay on 9 March 1871. Under the 'Immigration Act of 1869', he came under "Free Passage", ie.  at the cost of the Government. Of the 326 immigrants embarked, most were from Denmark. 
There are no further records of August, therefore he either died, or moved on, or returned to Denmark. However, Adolph's niece Alexandra Poulsen attended his wife's funeral in 1901- probably the daughter of August. The Electoral Roll for NSW showed Alexandria Elvina Poulsen, occupation domestic duties, living with Adolph George Poulsen, musician, Marjorie Vaughn Poulsen, clerk, and Theodore Sylvestor Poulsen, clerk, living at 89 Cowper-street Waverley. However, in the 1914 Electoral Roll, only Adolph was living at 89 Cowper Street, although a Miss Ethel Poulson, violin teacher, was also living in Cowper Street, no street number given- whether this was Alexandra, or another Poulsen relation is uncertain.

(QLD State Archves, Series 1013086. Registers of Immigrant Ships' Arrivals. Roll M471)
NB the original image appears to have Aug W. 'Th'. 'Paulsen'

Youngest son, (Ferdinand) Adolph Poulsen was a musician, playing the violin at concert standard.  In 1882, at the age of about 22,  he decided to follow his brother and emigrate to Australia. It is unknown the reason for his emigration, however, he may have received favourable reports from his brother, plus the fact that his mother was in prison for reason unknown, may have influenced his decision (1880 Census).

unnamed photo in family album thought to be Adolph Poulsen

Adolph Poulsen's violin

Adolph  donated his violin to the Technological Museum in Harris Street Sydney (now the Powerhouse Museum) at his death in 1932, and it is one of the earliest violin acquisitions into the Powerhouse Museum's collection. He began correspondence with the curator of the museum in 1929, three years before his death. The current curator of music and musical instruments at the Powerhouse Museum, Mr Michael Lea, wrote a description of the violin for the collection database, (ref. collection number H3505- concise link to article-  http://from.ph/237186). 
In his original letter to the museum curator, Adolph Poulsen, claimed he acquired the instrument in Copenhagen in 1868, when he was just 8 years of age. (see letter below)

The maker of the violin was Johann Gottfried Hamm, and the violin was made c.1784-1810. Johann Gottfried Hamm (1764-1817) was known to make violins in an Italian style, and  mostly worked in Markneukirchen in Germany. Hamm was a "Master of the Violin Maker's Guild, and known as the best maker of his time." "Sometimes prettily marked wood, but always acoustically good even when plain. Branded inside with 'I.G.H.'. Sometimes 'Hamm'. Sometimes inlaid the edges with ivory, mother-of-pearl, and other material for decoration. Occasionally a coat-of-arms inlaid with ivory on the back. In 1959, a Hamm violin was worth about  £100. " 
(ref. William Henley, Universal Dictionary of Violin and Bow Makers, 1973 ed.)

Adolph's violin made by Johann G. Hamm

 ivory label on back

 Adolph described the violin in his letter:
"This violin was made by Johannes Gottfried Hamm, a German. Initials I*G*H* being stamped inside in the back and Ivory edges inlade outside around the top edge, with a small Ivory Label inlade on the back. His date is 1780-1810."
Adolph further claims that the violin underwent restoration by Emil Hjorth in 1874 "when new linings, bass bar, blocks, fingerboard, tailpiece and pegs were added."
Emil Hjorth (1840-1920) was a Danish maker and repairer working in Copenhagen and part of a family of makers and repairers who worked for the Danish Court from the late 18th century. He also worked briefly in Vienna, Paris and London and became repairer to the Danish Royal Orchestra.
The  label inside the violin  reads  in very small print:

Â?Repareret at / instramentinager Emil Hjorth / Frederiksberggaade [--] Kjohenhava 18--.Â?

ie. repaired by Emil Hjorth at Frederksberg, Copenhagen.

As Adolph was born and raised  in Frederiksberg (Copenhagen), it would be interesting to know if Adolph played for the Danish Royal Orchestra at any time. 

Adolph Poulsen's violin in the Sydney Powerhouse Museum Collection

Adolph's first letter to the curator of the Technological Museum in Sydney, dated 20 November 1929:

Second letter dated 30 December 1931:

(Courtesy of the Powerhouse Museum )

The neck of his violin broke in 1929 and Adolph had it repaired in Sydney by the well respected Polish violin maker and repairer Gerard William Paszek who learnt his trade from his father who was a violin maker in Berlin, and then served an apprenticeship in Bohemia before emigrating to Australia.
In his letter, Adolph described the tone of his violin as "beautiful, clear, sweet yet full and somewhat resembles that of a clarionet." 
His scathing comment on the bottom of his letter may give an insight into his character. On describing the broken neck of his violin, he wrote:
"If I had done all I was advised to do to it by prominent artists and teachers who ought to have more sense, there would have been nothing of the Instrument left. To save it from such Vandals, I have placed it out of their reach."

To house his violin at the museum, Adolph had a maple display case and brass plate commissioned especially for it by Charles Ritchie Ltd, costing him £5.10s.

Adolph Poulsen's emigration to  Australia

For some reason, Adolph Poulsen was in England when he decided to emigrate to Australia. Whether he was working there at the time is unknown, but he is not in the 1881 English Census.
Embarking at Plymouth England, he arrived on a ship named the  B.I.S. Chybassa  landing firstly at Cooktown 19 October 1882, and disembarking in Mackay in November 1882, where he claimed he spent the next three years.

(QLD State Archives, Series ID 13086, Registers of Immigrant Ships' Arrivals, Roll M1699)

The Remittance Nomination System  of Immigration:

One of the assisted immigration schemes in the mid to late 19th century was the Remittance or Nomination system.

The Remittance Regulations stated that any person could nominate immigrants from the UK with the eligible immigrants to be mechanics of every description, domestic servants and all persons of the laboring class.

Amounts of deposits paid in mid 1863 were: 12 yrs and under 40 years, Male, £7, Female £4.

Persons/the depositor wishing to sponsor the immigrant of a nominated person, who were frequently members of their own family or they were prospective employees,  attended at the local petty sessions courthouse in the country districts or at the office of the Agent for Immigration in the city, paid the deposit for the passage and an additional sum to provide outfits for the voyage.

Adolph Poulsen’s shipping record has him listed as a Nominated and Remittance passenger, which means that someone in the Mackay community sponsored his passage to Australia- whether this was just a friend, or a relative is not known- it may have been his brother August Poulsen. On arrival in Mackay, the sponsor  then had to provide employment to him. It may explain why he left from England rather than from Germany or Denmark. In what capacity he was employed in Mackay has yet to be determined, but possibly as a printer.

Shipping record information:

 F.  Poulsen- ship Chybassa, 2000 ton ship

357 embarked at Plymouth, left 30 August 1882, arrived Cooktown 19 Oct 1882

Disembarked: Brisbane 124; Cooktown 9; Townsville 104; Mackay 19 (including 1 Saloon, 4 steerage, 7 free, 5 remittance and 3 nominated; Rockhampton 51.

Nationalities: 199 English, 94 Irish, 10 Scotch, 55 other countries.

3x Remittance Nominated- Mackay: Adolph Poulsen, Nils Nielson 19, and  Srien? Mehaven 25

(QLD State Archives- Ships Arrivals 1848-1912; Series ID 13086; Chybassa QSA Item ID 18479; Microfilm 1- Z1960; Microfilm 2- M1699)

After spending three years in Mackay, Adolph then arrived at Southport in 1885 where he joined the Local Volunteer Force (1885-1890). Land was surveyed and named Southport in 1875. 
An article, Ramblings in QLD from Tweed to Nerang in the Logan Witness (Beenleigh) Sat 21 January 1882 p4 described Southport as a 'favourite watering place which is making rapid strides, and will continue to do so. The place has become a rage and is "fashionable'. A an illustration of the progress it has made, I might tell you that three years ago, there was only one building here, and that land which was sold from £20 an allotment has since been sold for £150. There is a daily coach to and from Brisbane, also a steamer once or twice a week. A school of arts is about to be established here, Mr J. R. Sabine being the chief moving spirit in the matter. There are three really good hotels. Fishing forms no small part of the amusement of the visitors to Southport.'
Adolph would often play at Sabine's  School of Arts.

The Brisbane Courier, Friday 23 Oct 1885 p3 featured an article on Southport and the Volunteers:
The Volunteers have lately been making no small stir in this usually quiet locality. The arrival of the new uniforms- a neat and serviceable turn-out in blue, with white facings- was availed of by Captain Agnew as an appropriate occasion for making the corp's first military display. This took the form of a church parade, and the company, preceded by the drums and fifes, marched in good style to St John's Church, where divine service was celebrated by the Ven. Archdeacon Glennie, in the presence of an overflowing congregation. A finer body of men than the Southport Volunteers are not often to be met with in that arm of her Majesty's service.
On the 14th instant a Volunteer ball was given in the School of Arts for the ostensible purpose of augmenting the funds of the company, though the new uniforms might have had some slight influence in bringing about the festive occasion. the affair was a brilliant one, and the pecuniary result more than realised the anticipations of its promoters. The decorations, the music (provided by Messrs Rosenstengel and Poulsen), the ladies' dresses, the refreshments, and the spirit infused into the dancing were all that could be wished.


For five years, he lived in the Southport area where he met the Tobin family, pioneer settlers at Tallebudgera. He married Katherine Tobin on 19 May 1886, in the Tallebudgera Catholic Church, having converted to Catholicism.
Katherine had been born in Gerringong/ Kiama New South Wales in 1865 to Irish immigrant parents Stephen and Mary Tobin (see rest of Tobin blog).

Adolph and Katherine had 5 children between 1887 and 1894, the first three born in the Southport/Nerang area, and the last two, born in Lismore NSW after 1892.

In 1887, Poulsen was on the Electoral List for the Division of Nerang, qualification of 'Freeholder' at Southport. Notably his father-in-law Stephen Tobin was not on the list. 


The Western Star and Roma Advertiser Wed 25 Aug 1886 p3 described the small settlement of Southport in an article A Trip down Southby W. J. Lawson:

We came to a popular watering place called Southport. It is beautifully situated by the sea side and is nine miles from Burleigh. The township is very well laid out, on the brow of a range of hills about 300 yards from high water mark, and contains four hotels, six stores, three boarding houses, two bakers, two butchers, one saddler, one bootmaker, and a blacksmith shop, the latter the property of Mr Joseph McGhee; he is the boss blacksmith of Southport, and is good a good “biz”. The public places of note are the court house, and police barracks, School of Arts, State School, and the Southport Grammar School. The only places of worship are the Presbyterian, Congregational and Roman Catholic churches. Strange to say there is no church of England here yet, but that denomination is very strong here. All the above are fine substantial buildings, all built of wood- none of stone to be seen anywhere; but take it all in all Southport is a beautiful place. It has a standing population of 600, and the support of those depends upon the crowds of visitors that throng it at holiday time. Last Easter Monday there was a race meeting here, and was patronised by 800 from Brisbane, and if it were not for the numbers that flock here on such occasions, Southport could not possibly go ahead, as there is no other industry, no farming, no sugar growing, no potatoes or maize, in fact nothing to provide labor for the working classes. Certainly it is very fair for carpenters and painters just at present, as there are buildings going up in every direction; but the oldest inhabitants say that as soon as this stops the place will be at a standstill.

I now think I have given a very correct description of Southport, but I forgot to mention that any poor working man who wishes to make a comfortable little home can buy land here for £200 per acre, very cheap when said quick.
According to a newspaper report, Adolph worked in Southport as a printer, and was living there when the article above was written.

Adolph's skills as a violinist, was often called upon at local events. He had a close association with two local Schools, playing at their concerts, as well as the School of Arts run by Mr J.R. Sabine. Whether he taught any of the children at the schools is unknown. He no doubt provided the entertainment at musical events at the Tobin's Music Hall and hotel. 
There are several newspaper reports that mentioned his contributions to local entertainment:

Brisbane Courier Mon 14 June 1886 page 3
Country Mails- Southport
As regards scholastic matters, it is pleasing to note that the success of Miss Cargill’s Preparatory Grammar School has induced imitation. Southport will soon be able to boast of two first-class ladies’ schools. Mrs Chetwynd opens her establishment here in July.
The resignation of Mr P.P. Agnew as Post master of Southport has caused much regret amongst his numerous friends in this township…. As a mark of appreciation with which he is regarded here, it was determined by his musical and dramatic friends to give him a complimentary benefit. This came off on Friday evening at the School of Arts with much éclat, before a numerous and sympathetic audience.
Nearly all the available talent of Southport took part in the performance…. But I feel called upon to particularise as exceptionally admirable the violin solo of Mr Poulsen- the Keel Row, with variations. Mr Poulsen also rendered valuable assistance in the overtures to Fra Diavolo and Esmeralda in which he was seconded by Master Phillips a clever young violinist from Miss Cargill’s school who played with a facility and correctness not a little astonishing in so juvenile a performer.

Brisbane Courier Mon 13 December 1886 page 5
Miss Cargill’s School of Arts
(Article on school break-up ceremony)
A minuet dance, in which all the ladies shone to cap__ advantage was very gracefully given. The small orchestra consisted of Miss Platt and Miss Hobsen who shared the duties of pianist. Mr A.G. Poulsen first violin, and Mr Walter Gardner of Brisbane, second violin.
Mr Poulsen is a Dane by birth, plying his trade as a printer in Southport at present, and his skill as a violinist is of great assistance at all the local entertainments, as he is always willing to assist in furthering any good object. The orchestra also gave a selection from Von Suppé’s well known “Poet and Peasant” and “La Couronne d’Or”. The scenery was appropriate, and thanks to Mr Geo. Agnew, the stage manager, everything worked without a hitch. In fact the opera could hardly have been a greater success.

Brisbane Courier Fri 10 Dec 1886 p2,3
Country Mails- Southport
A concert was given in the School of Arts on Saturday evening being the first of a series of entertainments for augmenting the building fund of St Peter’s Anglican Church, now in process of erection in Southport. It was very numerously attended and passed off quite successfully.
Among the more prominent numbers were a serenade with violin obligato and piano accompaniment, by Bragn, charmingly sung by Miss Drew, the obligato being artistically rendered by Mr Poulsen.
Mr Poulsen’s fantasia on the violin proved to be another success.
… The concert was brought to a conclusion by a glee pleasingly sung by some of Mrs Chetwynd’s young ladies.

Brisbane Courier Tues Dec 21 1886
Mrs Chatwynd of the Knowle, Southport, celebrated the breaking up of her school for the current year by a concert which was given by her lady pupils at the School of Arts on Saturday, the funds being devoted to the St Peter’s Church Fund.
A number of vocal and instrumental pieces were given to the entire satisfaction of the audience, which was a large one, and the piano solos by the little Misses Lock and McIntrye may be specially mentioned as deserving of warm encomium. Mr A.G. Poulsen contributed a violin solo in his well known able manner. Dancing was kept up at the conclusion of the concert until nearly mid-night.

Brisbane Courier Wed 17 Oct 1888 p4
A correspondent writes: “The bachelors of Tallebudgera on Friday evening last entertained their friends at a plain and fancy dress ball, which, in spite of the unfavourable weather prevailing for the last few days, was well attended and proved a complete success. Mrs Dwyer’s hall had been secured for the occasion, and shortly after 8 o’clock some 25 couples were assembled, and the evening’s enjoyment began to the admirable music provided by Messrs Skott and Poulsen of Southport. The ball had been tasetefully decorated, and the floor was in admirable condition: a programme of 25 dances was gobe through with energy and spirit, several extras being subsequently insisted upon. A more enjoyable evening has never been witnesses in our township.”

Brisbane Courier Thurs 16 May 1889 page 4,5
A Correspondent writes from Southport
The second of a series of entertainments now being given monthly in the School of Arts, Southport, under the management of Mr Frances, the local P.M., came off on Monday evening and was numerously attended. Mr Allison gave a lecture on Dickens. Mr Frances also read very humorously the ‘notable courtship of Bumble from :Oliver Twist’. The lecture was succeeded by a concert, which was well carried out by the Misses Frances, Burbell, and Cathcart, and Merrs Frances, Allison, W. Philpott, and Baker with Mrs Sabine (piano) and Mr Poulsen (violin), the children of the State school, under the direction of their teachers sand several songs.

Logan Witness (Beenleigh) Sat 21 June 1890 p2
Southport Oddfellows Ball-
Took place in the School of Arts on Monday night last, and may fairly claim to have been a success. A nice little programme of 26 dances kept the affair going till early morn. The music was supplied by Mrs Sabine (piano) and Mr Poulsen (violin) and was a cut above what is generally met at most socials. About 40 couples were present.

Poulsen’s brother-in-law, John Conway Tobin, had extended his father’s hotel The Tallebudgera Hotel in 1888 and renamed it the Victoria Hotel. In April 1889, Tobin transferred the license of the hotel to Adolph Poulsen. It was described in one newspaper as a “music hall”. No further information is given about this hotel and it is unknown how long he kept the license, or whether he actually contributed to the running of the hotel or whether it was in name only.

The Poulsen's move to NSW

In 1890, the Poulsens had left Southport/Tallebudgera and lived for a period of four years at Lismore in NSW. Nothing is known about their years there, although the Trinity College music results for St Marys Catholic Convent School at Lismore  showed daughters Marjorie getting a 'pass mark' in piano and Eileen getting 'honours' for violin in October 1900, and would therefore appear to have boarded at the school after their parents moved to Sydney.

By 1895, they were living at Waverley in Sydney, at “Sunnyside" 89 Cowpar Street, Waverley. 

Adolph visited some friends in July 1900- The Richmond River Herald & Northern Districts Advertiser, Friday 6 July 1900 p4:
The annual ball was held at Nowra last week, and the Shoalhaven Telegraph this refers to the playing of Herr Poulsen (for some years residing at Lismore):- Capital music was dispensed by Mrs Cordery (piano) and Herr Poulsen, of Sydney (violin). Herr Poulsen is at present staying with Mr and Mrs Gurney, and kindly proffered his services. He is a violinist of exceptional ability, and his playing on a fine old instrument of beautiful tone will not soon be forgotten by those who had the good fortune to be present.

The Sydney Morning Herald
Tues 21 June 1898 p7
On Sunday the Church of St Francis held its eighth anniversary. Solemn High Mass was celebrated, the Rev. Father Lawler being the celebrant, etc… Gounod’s “Messe Solennelle” (St. Cecilia) was rendered by a large choir and orchestra led by Mr J. Miller. Miss Andrews presided at the organ, the whole being under the conductorship of Herr Adolph Poulsen.   … with violin obligato played by Herr Adolph Poulsen.

Katherine Poulsen's death

Unnamed photo in family album, thought to be (L to R) Mary Tobin, Katherine Poulsen nee Tobin, niece Alexandra Poulsen, with two of Katherine's children, possibly Theodore and Myra c.1897, at their home in Cowper Street Waverley

Katherine died of pneumonia and heart failure on 16 August 1901 at the young age of 36, leaving her young children aged between 7 and 14. Death notices appeared in the Sydney Morning Herald, from her husband, inviting friends to attend her funeral, and also one from her niece Alexandra Poulsen. She must have been Adolph's brother August’s daughter who was staying with them.

The Sydney Morning Herald
Sat 17 Aug 1901 p18
POULSEN- The Friends of Herr ADOLPH  POULSEN are respectfully invited to attend the Funeral of his late beloved WIFE, Catherine; to move from Sunnyside, 88(?) Cowper-street, Waverley, TO-MORROW (Sunday) Afternoon, at 3 o’clock to R.C. Cemetery Waverley
POULSEN- The Friends of Miss ALEXANDRA POULSEN are respectfully invited to attend the Funeral of her late beloved AUNT, Mrs Catherine Poulsen; to move from Sunnyside etc.

The Sydney Morning Herald
19 Aug 1901 p1
POULSEN- August 16, 1901, at her residence, Sunnyside __ Cowper-street, Waverley, Katherine Mary, the death beloved wife of Herr Adolph Poulsen, of pneumonia, aged 36 years, R.I.P. Western Australian papers please copy.

The Sydney Morning Herald
Sat 24 Aug 1901 p1
Herr ADOLPH POULSEN, FAMILY, and NIECE desire to return their sincere and heartfelt THANKS to their many kind friends for floral tributes, telegrams, letters, cards, and kind messages of sympathy in their recent sad bereavement.

The following obituary appeared in the Freemans Journal Sat 24 August 1901 p28:
Mrs Poulsen- Many will regret to learn that pneumonia has been responsible for the death of Mrs Poulsen, wife of Herr Adolph Poulsen, the well-known musician of Waverley, which occurred on Friday last after a few days' illness. Mrs Poulsen only a week before her death was in robust health, assisting to do honour to the Very Rev, Father Kennedy O.F.M. and the news of her death was not known to many till its announcement in St Charles's Church on Sunday. The deceased lady, who was only 36 years of age, was a daughter of Mr S. Tobin of Bundanoon. She was of a genial disposition, and entered with zest into every religious or charitable work in connection with the Waverley Parish. She was a member of the Third Order of St Francis, at the meeting of whose members on Sunday last her demise was announced by Father Birch. The funeral took place to the Waverley Cemetery on Sunday afternoon. R.I.P.

Following the death of his wife, leaving him with the difficult job of raising five young children, Adolph called on his father-in-law, Stephen Tobin, and his two sisters-in-law Louisa and Lily Tobin for help. The children spent some of their childhood in Bundanoon where Stephen (until his death in 1904) and Louisa and Lily resided, the two spinsters having been appointed postmistresses at Bundanoon from 1899. The children attended school in nearby Moss Vale, travelling by train. They remained very fond of their aunts and visited them regularly. Louisa died in 1931, and by 1950 Lily was residing at the Bundanoon Hotel, dying in 1955

Adolph continued to conduct orchestras at concerts in Waverley:

The Sydney Morning Herald
Sat 14 June 1902 p2
Waverley Methodist Church
Bondi Junction
Handel’s Oratatio “Judas Maccabaeus” will be rendered in the above Church on Wed, June 18 at 6pm by an augmented choir and an efficient orchestra (over 100 performers).
Principals: Leader of Orchestra: Herr Adolph Poulsen, etc
Proceeds in aid of Choir Funds.

The Sydney Morning Herald
Fri 29 May 1903 p7
There was a very large and appreciative attendance at St Charles’ Church, Waverley, on Wednesday night, when a sacred concert was given by the church choir, assisted by several well-known artists.
Mr Joseph Tracy acted as conductor, whilst a capable orchestra was led by Herr Poulsen.
(lists performers and music)… Herr Adolph Poulsen also contributed an air by Bach, with orchestra and organ accompaniment. … The proceeds were in aid of the parochial debt.

Adolph was teaching violin and in 1904 he began the Sydney Juvenile Orchestra.

The Sydney Morning Herald
Wed 27 Jan 1904 p9
In another column Herr Adolph Poulsen draws attention to the Sydney Juvenile Orchestra, which he is promoting with the object of accustoming young students to ensemble playing and in this way preparing them for orchestral work in later life.

The Sydney Morning Herald
Wed 27 April 1904 p7
The first concert of the Sydney Juvenile Orchestra will be given at St James’ Hall tonight under the conductorship of Herr Adolph Poulsen, when the pupils of Mr Harry Leston will also deliver recitations. Vocal and instrumental solos will be included in the programme.

The Sydney Morning Herald
Wed 23 Nov 1904 p7
There was a good attendance at St James’ Hall last night when the Sydney Juvenile Orchestra under Herr Adolph Poulsen, performed a number of selections which excited the warm applause of the audience. Those assisting as soloists were Misses Neville Vane. Etc.

The Sydney Morning Herald
Wed 23 May 1905 p10
The Sydney Juvenile Orchestra of nearly 60 players including some two score juvenile strings, gave their fourth concert at St James’s Hall last night under Herr Adolph Poulsen’s direction. The rehearsal of so many young people must be an arduous affair, “perfection” more or less resembling the vanishing point in perspective drawing. At the same time, the “Nabuco” Symphony, the march “Under the Double Eagle” (by a composer unfortunately named Wagner, but evidently having no connection with the great one), the “Famous Champagne” galop (Lumbye), and the “Happy Days in Dixie” may be named amongst the pieces that were creditably rendered. The applause was of the heartiest, and during the interval Herr Poulsen was presented with an illuminated address and a dressing case by his youthful band.

The Sydney Morning Herald
Wed 23 May 1906 p12
The Sydney Juvenile Orchestra gave their sixth annual concert at St James’s Hall last night, when Herr Adolph Poulsen conducted about 50 performers, tow score of whom belong to the string section. It is hardly possible to criticise seriously these immature efforts, but it is hoped that they have a good effect in stimulating an early interest in orchestral music. “Teaching the young idea to shoot,” at the right note, if persevered in, would lead at last to a steadily tuneful ensemble, but as a general rule the young people leave before reaching that point of comparative perfection. In last night’s programme the Juvenile Orchestra rendered a “Faust” selection arranged by J. Riviere, an air de ballet (“La Gazelle”) Corbin’s Spanish valse “San Tiago”, and similar pieces, in all of which their endeavours were cordially applauded. Miss Eileen Poulsen (violin), Mrs Lawrence and Mr E. J. Bowen (songs), Miss Muriel Henderson and Miss Wardell (recitations) contributed to a bright entertainment.

In correspondence with the Technical Museum (re donating his violin), he described himself as a 'Violin Teacher'.
Adolph’s daughter, Eileen Poulsen, was also an excellent musician, playing the piano for the silent movies in picture theatres and in high class hotels and restaurants in Sydney (Australia Hotel in Sydney and in the Grand Ballroom at the Carrington Hotel in Katoomba during the 1920’s) She taught at the Sydney Conservatorium of Music, played for the Sydney Orchestra, and she also took a band to play in Java, Indonesia before the First World War (c.1913).
Adolph's children had a close bond with Katherine's sisters, particularly Aunt Louisa (Louie) and Lily Tobin who ran the Bundanoon Post Office for many years, and helped him raise them. They often visited them in Bundanoon during their childhood and in their later years. (Source- Eileen’s son Niall and granddaughter.) There are several newspaper reports during the period 1906-1908 where Eileen, Theodore and Myra performed at concerts in Bundanoon, with Eileen playing violin, and Theodore and Myra singing.

In 1909 Adolph gave evidence concerning his knowledge of violin makers at a trial in Sydney:

The Sydney Morning Herald
Sat 27 March 1909 p6
Before Judge Murray
Spring v. Staell
Plaintiff sued defendant to recover ₤50 damages for alleged misrepresentation in connection with the sale by him to plaintiff of a violin. Plaintiff said that in consequence of defendant’s representation that the violin was a genuine Grancino she bought it from him for ₤47 5s, which she paid with her own cheque, The violin was not genuine.
The defence was not guilty, that the instrument was a Grancino, and that no guarantee was given.
Alfred Sayer, head of the violin department of Nicholason and Co. of George Street said the violin (produced) was brought to him a few days ago for his opinion as the its age and value. He considered it worth from ₤7 to ₤8, and thought it a German instrument made in Saxony.
Adolph Poulsen, teacher of the violin, said he had had about 40 years experience of the violin. In his opinion the instrument produced was of German make. It was certainly not a Grancino.
Arthur Sewell (in his defence) said he bought it in Dresden Germany for ₤30 and in his opinion the one produced was an old instrument- a Grancino. Etc.

In the 1913 NSW Electoral Roll for Waverley:
Address- 89 Cowper Street Waverley:
Poulsen, Adolph George, musician
Poulsen, Alexandria Elvina, domestic duties (niece)
Poulsen, Marjorie Vaughan, clerk (daughter)
Poulsen, Theodore Sylvester, clerk (son)

In the 1914 NSW Post Office Directory:
Poulsen, Adolph, 89 Cowper Street Waverley
Poulsen, Miss Ethel, Cowper Street Waverley, tchr violin (??? Eileen maybe?)

Adolph applied for citizenship in 1915, which was granted. He was living at Goulburn at the time, stating he had lived there for 10 months. He also stated that one of his sons was living in Goulburn, which may be the reason he was living there. It was also not far from Bundanoon (see below for application form).

By 1916, Adolph was calling himself Professor Poulsen. He had  returned to Lismore to conduct an orchestra in accompaniment of a play:
Northern Star (Lismore) Mon 28 Aug 1916 p4:
A large audience greeted the initial production of the Metro-Art picture "The High Road", at the Federal Hall on Saturday night. The realistic scene depicting the terrible fire at the factory, where the girls had been locked in by the manager and the subsequent rescue by the fire brigades, fairly carried the audience away. The music rendered by the orchestra under the direction of Professor Poulsen was of high merit. During the interval, Professor Poulsen rendered a violin solo "Une Petite Plainte" by Poussard. The same programme with be shown to-night.

And again, he performed in Lismore in October 1916- Northern Star, Tues 10 October 1916 p4:
A large and appreciative audience attended the sacred concert given by the Lismore Citizen's Band, assisted by local vocalists and instrumentalists last Sunday night. The solos, which were of a purely sacred nature, were rendered in such a manner as to gain the entire approbation of the audience. The programme...... Mr A. Poulsen displayed great ability in his violin solo "Reverie", by Veuxtemps, receiving well deserved applause.

In 1921, Adolph Poulsen was employed by the Steamship Company of New Zealand on their passenger cargo vessel, the 'Makura'. He is listed in the manifest of  crew members on four trips between Sydney and Hawaii in July, August, November and December 1921, the first two as a 1st Grade Steward, and the second two as a musician to entertain the passengers. The 'Makura' was the first steamship specifically built for the Sydney-Vancouver passenger service, catering for 207 first class, 114 second class and 72 third class passengers. Early the following year he remarried, so does not appear to have continued with this job.

Adolph's Naturalization:

Adolph first applied for Naturalization in 1915 which was granted, and in 1922  Adolph  applied for the new Certificate of Naturalization under the new Nationality Act of 1920. At that time he was living at 7 Challis Flats, Challis Avenue, Potts Point, Sydney.
He described himself as 62 yrs of age, 5 ft 6 in., dark brown hair and brown eyes.
The timing of Adolph's first application is interesting. Within one week of the declaration of war with Germany in August 1914, all German subjects in Australia were declared 'enemy aliens' and were required to report to the Government and notify their address. By February 1915, it also included naturalised migrants as well as Australian born persons whose fathers or grandfathers had been born in Germany or Austria, and the Government pursued a policy of selective internment, targeting leaders of the German Australian community including pastors of the Lutheran Church and businessmen. Some were accused of being disloyal by neighbours and dobbed into the police. As Adolph had very German sounding names, maybe this was the reason he took out naturalization, declaring he was of Danish nationality not German.

He also stated in his application in June 1915 that: 
Since his arrival in Australia, he had resided at Mackay 3 years, took the Oath of Allegiance to HM Queen Victoria and served in the Volunteer Force, Southport QLD 5 years, Lismore NSW 4 years, Sydney 20 years, Goulburn 10 months (where his son was residing at the time).


Naturalization Certificate 4 April 1922

Adolph Poulsen's second Marriage:

Adolph remarried 27 February 1922 to Frances Daisy Bevill (widow):

Sydney Morning Herald 22 April 1922 p9

 It is unknown what happened to Frances, and she is not named in his funeral notice. Nor was she living with him in Brougham Street Darlinghurst in the 1930 Electoral Roll. There is no death record in the NSW BDM for a Frances Poulsen.
Frances Daisy Bevill nee Watts was the widow of Frederick Bevill M.A. who died in 1911 aged 63 at his home in Randwick. She had married him in 1901, a year after his first wife died (viz. Annie, by whom he had a daughter Florence in 1878). Frederick's obituary stated that "he was well known in scholastic circles and many of the leading citizens claim him as their educational mentor". "He was recognized as a capable mathemaritic and newspaper dramatic critic of high attainment." He was also secretary for about 10 years of the Licensed Victuallers' Association. In the early 1880's he was headmaster of Royston College in Woolloomooloo, but became insolvent in 1886 (having earlier been insolvent in 1877). A Cambridge graduate, he had edited a paper in China and Japan. In Sydney he often gave public lectures on scientific subjects such as the tides, the arctic ice and icebergs, the coral reef, etc, and even hypnotism and mesmerism.

In 1924, Adolph appears to be living at or visiting Parkes, although without a forename in the articles, the relevance is uncertain:
In the Western Champion, Parkes, Thurs 20 March 1924 p9:
The National Concert in the Parkes Picture Palace in the evening brought a 'perfect day' to a fitting conclusion. The large hall was well filled with a thoroughly representative and sympathetic audience, who apparently enjoyed every item of the diversified programme which was presented...... A violin solo by Mr Poulsen 'St Patricks Day' with Yankee Doodle' as an encore followed.

This was followed on Thur 26 June 1924 p13 (Western Champion) with:
On Tuesday night a very successful "Shilling Pop" in aid of the funds of the Parents and Citizens Association was held at the P.P.P. There was an excellent attendance and the fine programme presented was arranged by Mrs Smiles. The programme was as follows: Duet, Professor Poulsen and Edgar Smiles....  Violin trio. Miss Madge Sanders,Jack Davis and Professor Poulsen

By 1929 he was living at 126 Brougham Street, Kings Cross, Darlinghurst. A Mrs Mayhew of 45 King's Cross Road handed Adolph's violin to the curator of the Technical Museum in 1932, and handled his correspondence with the curator due to Adolph's illness. In 1930, Adolph's son Theodore was living in nearby Wylde Road, Darlinghurst with his wife Lillian.

Adolph Poulsen's death

Adolph was living in Hurstville Sydney, at 10 Hurstville street,  with his daughter Eileen Spain, when he died on 8 July 1932 of a cerebral haemorrhage at North Shore Hospital, and was buried in Waverley Cemetery with his wife and family.

Sydney Morning Herald, 13 July 1932, p.10- funeral notice

Family Grave at Waverley Cemetery Sydney

Adolph and son, Raymond, who died 10 years before, were buried in the same grave #2282, Section 17 (Roman Catholic). 
The Sydney Morning Herald- Mon 3 July 1922 p8
POULSEN- July 1, 1922, Raymond Horace, youngest son of Adolph Poulsen, late of Waverley, aged 28 years, R.I.P.

Wife Katherine, her father Stephen Tobin, and second son Theodore Poulsen are all buried in the same grave #2281, Section 17, adjacent to #2282, the two plots combined into one large family grave.

The large family grave has a very elaborate memorial covered with Irish Catholic symbols, and is positioned overlooking the sea. As Katherine and her son Raymond share the same marble plaque, it would appear that Adolph must have had the elaborate memorial constructed after his son's death in 1922. Adolph's plain plaque is on the ground below his son, while Stephen Tobin's equally plain plaque is on the ground below his daughter Katherine. There is no plaque for son Theodore who was the last to be buried in the plot.
The two semi-headstones on either side of the central carving may have been cut down from the two original headstones of Katherine and Stephen's original graves. Interestingly, even though the memorial was constructed by a Dane who had converted from Lutheranism to Catholicism, the memorial is purely Irish Catholicism in its symbolism. (see symbolism explanation at bottom of this chapter)

Katherine's plaque is rather touching, with the words:
"Sleep darling- sleep and take thy rest"

See explanation of symbolism at bottom of page

(see Waverley Cemetery Map and grave location details in Chapter 6)

Grave marked *

Grave * overlooking the sea
Notably, Waverley cemetery also holds the magnificent Memorial to Irish rebel leader Michael Dwyer and the 1798 Irish Rebels.


i.MARJORIE VAUGHAN POULSEN, b. 09 March 1887, Brisbane, Queensland
Australia; d. 1942 Brisbane QLD (QLD 1942/B58852); married  ARTHUR TEKLOOT, 15 October 1913, Waverley, New South Wales; b. 1884 Liverpool, Sydney, NSW; d.1969 St Leonards Sydney (NSW- 27318/1969).

ii. EILEEN BEATRICE POULSEN, b. 01 August 1888; d. 23 February 1964 Brisbane (Reg. B64108- NB. under Ieleen B. Spain).  She married in Sydney in 1924 to WILLIAM JOSEPH SPAIN, b. 15 August 1888 Limerick Ireland, (dentist, served in A.I.F. in WWI) d. 18 January 1938 at Randwick Military Hospital, Sydney, NSW, buried at Katoomba RC Cemetery.
iii.THEODORE SYLVESTER POULSEN, b. 29 April 189017; d. 22 March 1965, Manly, Sydney, NSW. Married 1st MAUD A. LEYDON at Manly in 1915 (she died 1924 at Sydney). He married 2nd LILLIAN J. CRAWFORD in August 1924 at Balmain North, Sydney, NSW, and divorced 6 August 1937. He married 3rd LENA MoORELLA 30 August __ and divorced 30 August 1946 Canberra ACT.

iv.MYRA LILLIAN POULSEN, b. 1892, Lismore, New South Wales, Australia; d. 9 Oct. 1948, Brisbane Queensland, Australia. married  PHILIP ROWLING NOTT on 11 September 1916 at St Leonards Sydney NSW- see below for details

v. RAYMOND HORACE POULSEN, b. 1894, Lismore, New South Wales,
Australia; d. 01 July 1922, Redfern, Sydney, NSW.

            Marjorie Poulsen

Arthur & Marjorie (Poulsen) TeKloot

Eileen Poulsen

Myra Poulsen as a child

Myra Poulsen

Myra Nott nee Poulsen at the beach

1913 Electoral Roll- living in Margaret Street Toowoomba, occupation: clerk
1930- Living in Ronald Flats Wylde Street Darlinghurst, with his wife Lillian, occupation: traveller
1958 living in Pacific Lodge Fisher Rd, DeeWhy, no wife listed, no occupation/retired.
As the last legal grantee of the Tobin/Poulsen grave at Waverley cemetery, his last address given was Mulwala House, Canberra, ACT.

MYRA LILLIAN POULSEN was born 1892 in Lismore, New South Wales, Australia, and died on 9 October 1948 in Brisbane Queensland, Australia.  She married PHILIP ROWLING NOTT  on 11 September  1916 in Sydney, NSW, son of PHILIP NOTT and MARTHA WRIGHT of Brisbane (see Nott Family History blog- link below).  He was born 7 May 1887 in Brisbane Queensland, Australia, and died 1945 in Brisbane Queensland, Australia.

Philip and Myra Nott

Myra is buried at South Brisbane Cemetery.

Grave of Myra Nott

The Nott's favourite holiday spot on Point Danger overlooking  Rainbow Bay,  Greenmount,  and the Tweed at  Cooloongatta, the Gold Coast, QLD in the 1930's

Philip Rowling Nott was born in Brisbane in 1887. He was educated at Brisbane Grammar School, 1901 to 1905, and won Lilley Medals for distinction in Greek, Latin and English; Lower school Silver Medal in 1903 and Upper School Gold Medal in 1905.

Philip Rowling Nott

In 1906 he joined the staff of the Royal Bank. He later qualified as an accountant (A.F.I.A. and A.I.A.Q.) with the Queensland National Bank.

Philip played A grade tennis.
He married Myra Poulsen, the daughter of a Danish musician, in September 1916, and had their first child, Patricia, the following October. Their son, Philip Arthur was born in 1922.

Philip became Secretary for Gunnerson Crockett, a timber importing firm, which became insolvent during the 1927-35 Depression. He battled on during the bad years in various casual occupations including keeping books, taxation etc for Arnold Young, chemist, his sister Isabel's husband.

Philip Rowling Nott in Brisbane

Before and during World War 2, he was on staff of the National Mutual Life Association as an insurance salesman. During the War, he joined the R.A.A.F. as a Pilot Officer, instructing in maths and navigation to young lads who intended to join the R.A.A.F. when old enough.

His son, Philip Anthony Nott, also joined the R.A.A.F. in December 1941 as a pilot. He was a Flight Lieutenant in the 31 Squadron, flying Beaufighter planes over New Guinea.

Philip Rowling died during the last year of the war on 2 August 1945, at the relatively young age of 58. He was described as a company secretary, and they were living at no. 9 Cordelia Street, South Brisbane. 

Blog on Nott family:


 Christmas at Brereton Street, Sth Brisbane c.1928
Front row L-R: Marjorie teKloot nee Poulsen, children Philip and Patricia Nott with mother Myra Nott nee Poulsen with hands on son, husband Philip Nott back left in tall hat;

others unknown, but would appear to be the Poulsen/Tobin clan, with possibly Adolph Poulsen in the suit in the centre next to his 2nd wife Daisy with possibly son Theodore Poulsen beside him; possibly sister Eileen Spain nee Poulsen on right next to Myra and possibly Loui and Lily Tobin on the other side of Myra.


Myra with  Philip and Patricia c. 1923-24

i.PATRICIA MARJORIE NOTT, b.1917, Brisbane Queensland, Australia; d.1991, Brisbane Queensland, Australia; m. (1) ROBERT WILLIAM ALFRED MARSHALL, 1942, Brisbane, Queensland (b. 1911; d. Unknown); m. (2) OLEG VITTE in 1950, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; issue one daughter.

Patricia was born in Sandgate, Brisbane. She was rather adventurous and  took flying lessons in 1937 at Archerfield Aerodrome. She finally gained her pilot's licence on 3 February 1938 and was licensed to fly Taylor Cubs and D.H.60G planes. She also did her training on a Gypsy Moth plane. This was not long after the first female pilots began flying in the early 1930's. It was a time when female pilots were a rare breed.  She continued flying until the outbreak of WW2, in 1939. Patricia died from chest injuries caused in a car accident in 1991.

Patricia's pilot's licence dated 3 Feb 1938

Pat in a DH 60C in 1939

Patricia on a flight in 1938

The Taylor J2 Cub at QANTAS at Archerfield

Flying over Mitchell QLD

Patricia Nott 1938

Pat’s husband, OLEG VITTE was born in Harbin Manchuria (Russian Quarter) and emigrated with his Russian parents in 1925 on the Mishna Maru, a Japanese freighter. This was shortly after the Russian revolution had concluded with the defeat of the remaining White Russian Army that had held out at Vladivostok until 1922. Oleg and his father Richard and elder brother Vladimir were naturalised in 1933. Oleg served on the HMAS “Gympie” during WWII and following the war gained a degree in Civil Engineering, working in the Dept of Ground Water for the Qld Government. They had one daughter. 

ii.PHILIP NOTT, b.1922, Brisbane, QLD; m. FLORA MCNEIL in 1948; d.2012; issue: 4 sons

Myra and Philip Nott with son Philip at the beach

Flight Lieutenant Philip A Nott in R.A.A.F. during WWII
31 Squadron flying Beaufort fighters


The magnificent  memorial  over the Tobin/Poulsen grave at Waverley cemetery is  covered with religious and Irish symbols. An American website by Doug Gray www.christiansymbols.net  describes many of these symbols:

Shamrock- often seen on Irish graves, symbolizes the three leaf shamrock used by St. Patrick to explain the Trinity to the Irish unfamiliar with Christianity. Patrick plucked a shamrock and explained that although the stalk has one leaf, the leaf is divided into three separate leaflets, as, too, the Trinity- the Father, the Son, and Holy Spirit. It is said that he converted many people to Christianity that day. It also denotes Irish roots as it is the national flower and symbol of Ireland. Apart from the Trinity, the three leaves also symbolizes faith, hope and charity; or past, present and future. Irish culture and ancient Celtic Druid cultures believed that the plant had magical powers such as predicting storms, etc.
Colour White- white symbolizes light, purity, innocence, joy, virginity and purification.
Celtic Harp- the national emblem of Ireland, as well as a symbol of joy in heavenly music. It has been recognized for eight hundred years as the national emblem, despite British attempts to ban it through the centuries of occupation.
Celtic Cross- a very ancient form of the cross used by Christians in Great Britain, Ireland and surrounding areas. The circle represents eternity. It is often used to distinguish Irish graves.
Latin Cross (cross of Calvary)- the cross being empty symbolizes the Resurrection
The centrepiece is a bit of a mystery especially the two different arms that are reaching up out of the clouds. On contacting Doug Gray, he had not seen one like it before. His interpretation is that: God, because He is a Spirit, is never depicted as a full man, however, throughout history He has been depicted as a hand or arm coming out of the clouds. In this case, one arm symbolizes God. The other symbolizes the soul departing to Heaven and uniting with God, which ties in with the phrase below “My God and My All”. The question is- which arm belongs to whom?
Elizabeth Wheeler, a researcher of gravestone symbolism, questions whether either of the arms represents God as His arm would be reaching down, not up, and these hands are open, beseeching. However, the sleeved arm is stretched sideways out of the cloud, whereas the bare arm is reaching up for salvation. A difficult one to interpret.


As previously mentioned Lars Poulsen was the son of unmarried mother Edel Sophie Dreyer; the sire was also named Lars Poulsen. They did not marry nor did they live together, so presumably the pregnancy was an accident. Edel Sophie, known as Sophie (and some records have Elen Sophie), came from a well-to-do family, so her pregnancy was probably considered very shameful at the time. Sophie was sent to have her baby to a small village called Skovhuse in Esbonderup, a few miles west of their home in Helsingor, in the county of Frederiksborg, north of Copenhagen on the island of Zealand. The father, Lars Poulsen was a 'huckster' or hoker in Danish, which was a small grocer, with a shop in the Market town area of Helsingor. 
Adolph played violin at professional level, and considering  that his father’s occupation was a manual one, listed as a ‘travelling bricklayer’ in the Danish Census records, questions arise as to how the family managed to purchase an expensive antique violin by one of the world’s renowned violin makers, and pay for expensive violin lessons. The answer appears to come from Adolph’s paternal grandmother’s family and their ancestry.

The following records follow the Dreyer family back to the 1600's, and also Lars Poulsen Senior's family.

Map of Denmark- this family originates from the island of Zealand/Sjaelland (capital Copenhagen), and the island of Fyn (Odense)

In the 1855 Danish Census for Copenhagen, we are given the following information:
Lars Poulsen, 31,  bricklayer, birth place Esbonderup Parish, County of Frederiksborg
Carlotte Gudmundsen 29, his wife, born Copenhagen
August Poulsen, 4, son, born Copenhagen
Carl Poulsen, 2, son, born Ballerup Parish, Copenhagen
Ingeborg Gudmundsen, 29, twin sister, born Copenhagen

From that information we can look for records of Lars Poulsen, born c.1823-24 in Esbonderup Parish in the County of Fredericksborg, north of Copenhagen, and the following records confirm this.


Lars Poulsen was the illegitimate son of Sophie Dreyer (aka Edel/Aedel Sophie Dreyer, and Elen Sophie Dreyer/Dreier in various records), described as 'Ugift'= unmarried. 
He was born in Skovhusene, in Esbonderup Parish. The record states that Sophie was from Helsingor, Esbǿnderup Parish in the County of Fredericksborg, but was living in the home of Anders Nielson at the time of the birth/baptism. The father of the child was named as Lars Poulsen, a ‘huckster’ living in Helsingor.

The following baptismal record in Danish is translated below
(my grateful thanks to Morten Stryhn, a distant cousin, for his help with accessing and interpreting these records).

(Danish Archives-  Esbǿnderup Sogn- Kontraministerialbog 1815-2004 p.33)

Esbønderup Sogn:
Aar og Datum: Født Søndag mellem Juul og Nye Aar, d. 28. Dec. 1823.
Barnets fulde Navn: Lars Poulsen.
Daabens Datum enten i Kirken eller Hiemme: Hiemmed. 1. Jan., 18. Jan i Kirken 1824.
Forældrenes Navn, Stand, Haandtering og Bopæl: Ugift Sophie Dreyer, fra Helsingøer, til huse hos Anders Nielsen i Skovhusene. Udlagt til Barnefader Spækhøker Lars Poulsen, boende i Stjernegaden i Helsingøer.
Faddernes Navn, Stand og Opholdssted: Sophie Meelby, Koldbjørns Hustrue i Skovhusene Knudsen ____ , Anders Nielsen, Hans Christiansen og Ole Skomager, alle af Skovhuse.


Esbønderup Shire 
Date of Birth: Sunday 28 December 1823
Child's full name: Lars Poulsen.
Baptism Date either in church or at home January 1, 1824 at home.January 18, 1824 in the Church
(It was important that the child was baptised before it died in case the child shows signs of disease, so the child was first baptised at home, then baptism is confirmed in the church later)
Parents' name and residence: Unmarried Sophie Dreyer, from Helsingøerliving in the house of Anders Nielsen in Skovhusene
Father Lars Poulsen, residing in Stjernegaden in Helsingøer, ‘Spaekhoker’.
Spaekhoker is a profession- at the time, the grocery trade was split into different professions, especially in the big towns, eg. Hørkræmmer,  (flaxshopkeeper), Spækhøker (huckster) and Urtekræmmer (grocer). Lars Poulsen probably had a little store somewhere in the town, probably in the street “Stjernegade”, in which he also lived.
Spækhøker (huckster): Older name for retailer who sold bacon, hams, sausages, chickens, geese, eggs, butter, flour, bread, beer and spirits. Huckster was socially slightly higher than Hørkræmmeren who was selling iron, coal, herring, salt and flax, but lower than the Urtekræmmeren (grocer) who sold eg coffee, tea, sugar, spices and lemons. (thanks to Morten Stryhn for this explanation)
Godparents Namerank and abode:
Sophie MeelbyWife of Koldbjorn Knudsen ____Anders Nielsen, Hans Christiansen and Ole Skomagerall of Skovhuse

What relationship Anders Nielson, or the Godparent Sophie Meelby/Knudsen are to Sophie Dreyer, is not yet established.

Skovhusene is in the southern part of the parish of Esbonderup- see map below

In Wikipedia, in a description of ‘Esbonderup’, Esbonderup Skovhuse is described as “a small village south of Esbonderup, in North Zealand. The area was formerly known for its strange existences include consisting of poachers and charcoal burner. Today the buildings are characterised by large villas and well-kept farms and smallholdings.” Esbonderup has Denmark’s oldest hospital (1755).

Map of Skovhuse in Esbonderup, west of Helsingor, in the County of Frederiksborg
which is north of Copenhagen

The 1834 Census, lists Sophie’s name as:

 ‘Elen Sophie Dreyer’, aged 35, living with her new husband Christian Frederik Rudolph Beyer, 34, a brick layer, and ‘her son’ Lars Poulsen aged 11, and her 21 year old niece Charlotte Pauline Andersen (daughter of sister Christine Hamaine Dreyer who married Poul Anderson who died in 1823). Notably Lars would take up the profession of his stepfather. A woman, Lisbeth Hansen 41, widow, described as a “washer woman” also resided with them

1834 Census

Sophie, named as ‘Aedel Sophie Dreier’, married Christian Rudolph Beyer either on 1 October 1833 or 11 November at Helsingor, Frederiksborg, and her given age was 35 (b.c. 1798). 

(marriage confirmed on www.geni.com/people/Hans-Dreyer/5078951621410134723, and links to family of Hans Langsted Dreyer –see below). 
Notably, her name in other records is ‘Edel Sophia’.

Marriage record (Family Search.org)- 1 October 1833:

Marriage Record (Danish Archives)- 11 November 1833
(Danish Records- Helsingor Sogn- Kontraministerialbog p204)

Notably the father of her child, Lars Poulsen's marriage is on the same page, a month earlier:

By the 1845 CensusSophie’s husband Christian Rudolph Beyer, 45, bricklayer, is ‘single’ living with an older man (ie. HP Bagge 57 a clerk), and in 1850 Census he is described as a widower and a lodger living in a large household in Helsingor, Sophie having died in 1838. Beyer is not listed in the 1840 Census, nor is Lars Poulsen. However, it is obvious that Lars Poulsen learnt his trade as a bricklayer from his stepfather Christian Beyer. His future brother-in-law was also a brick layer which may have been how he met his future wife Charlotte.

Birth/baptism records for Edel Sophia Dreyer show she was born in September 1793; baptised 4 October 1793 Holmens Parish, Sokkelund District to parents, Hans Langsted Dreyer and Cathrine Rostoft.  She was named after her sister who was born/baptised 12 August 1791 in Holmens Parish and died soon after (Family Search.org).
Witnesses were officers in the military, and several 'cancellists, which is an administrative officer.

(Danish Archives- Holmens Sogn Enesteministerialbog 1617-1813F- p35)

Her death record has the following information:

There are Danish Census records as well as numerous family trees on this family, from which the following information has been gathered. The Dreyer family originated from Odense which is on the neighbouring island to Zealand (Copenhagen and Helsingor)

Map of Denmark showing ancestral places: Odense, Raschenberg, Bogense on the island of Fyn, and Copenhagen and Helsingor on the island of Zealand

1787 DANISH CENSUSParish: North Quarter, Copenhagen City
Hans Lungsted Dreyer, age 24 (b.c.1763), Business: “Mynster Writes in Holmen” ie. copyist (Holmen is in Copenhagen)
Catrina Aastoft (Rostoft), age 21, his wife
Frideriche Kirstine, 2, daughter

1787 Census
NB. Business: "Mynsterskriver, or Mynster Writes (Copyist) in Holmen"

Mynsterskriver is a profession in the army or navy- practical and administrative assisting with recruitment and ordinary operations; he was copying and updating nautical charts. 
Holmen is the suburb of Copenhagen where they lived, near the naval area on Holmens Canal.

1801 CENSUS- Helsingor, County of Frederiksborg (north of Copenhagen)
Hans Dreyer, 42, occupation ‘Fuldmaegtig’ (administrator; producing documents)
Anne Catharine Berliin (Werlin), 23, his (2nd) wife
Fredericka Kirstine Dreyer, 15, dau of 1st wife
Christiane Hamanine Dreyer, 12, dau of 1st wife
Elen Sophie Dreyer, 7, dau of 1st wife (ie. born c. 1793/4)
Fridericka Thengeline Dreyer, 1, their daughter
Inger Catharine Olsen, 18, girl

1801 Census


HANS LANGSTED DREYER (Edel Sophia’s father)
born:June 1764, bap. 1 June 1764 Saint Canute Parish Odense District, Odense, Fyn, Denmark
died: 24 May 1817 in Sankt Olav’s parish, Lynge-Kronborg District, ( Helsingor Skt, Olai sogn) County of Frederiksborg, Denmark; buried on 29 May 1817 in St Olav’s parish.
parentsChristian Haman Dreyer and Frederikke Sophie Langsted
siblings: Johanne Dreyer b.d.1760; Anna Elisabeth Dreyer b.d.1758; Jens Dreyer 1753-1770; Anna Elisabeth Dreyer 1765-1811 m. Laurits Berth; Johannes Dreyer 1767-1768; Johannes Jensene Dreyer 1770-1772; Johannes Dreyer b.c.1775 d?

Occupation: Copyist; Klubbvaert; Kommandersergent; Fuldmaegtig (clerk)
1791- copyist in 3rd Department Bureau of the Admiralty and Kommisariatskollegiet
1799 Department Office-Pension
1799 Club Host in Helsingor
1804- Kommandersergent in Helsingor Civil Artillery
See below for ancestors

The two marriage records for Hans Langsted Dreyer are:
Spouse 1: Cathrine Rostoft, b.1766, baptised 9 December 1766 Saint Nicholas Parish, Sokkelund District, Copenhagen married 3 September 1784 at Frue Kirke or Vor Frue Kirke, Copenhagen; married 3 August 1784 in Our Ladys Parish, Sokkelund District, Copenhagen; died c. 1795 Copenhagen- notably on 5th July 1795, there was a disastrous fire in Copenhagen which started in the old naval base and spread to Holmens Canal and over Holmens Canal to the quarter around St Nicolai Church, and lasted for 3 days (dying out on 7th July at 4pm), with most residents fleeing, destroying 909 houses, and damaging  a further 74 houses and making 6000 residents homeless (of total population of 100,000). I wonder if that is when Hans moved his family to Helsingor, as his wife died in 1795, and the children were all baptized at Holmens Parish (Saint Nicholas). The church of Saint Nicholas which began in the 1200’s as the church of fishermen, sailors and visiting traders, was the second most ornately decorated church in Copenhagen, becoming the church of the upper classes and nobility, but it was almost totally destroyed in the fire- the spire, the nave and most of the furniture and fixtures were lost, although part of the walls remained. Due to state bankruptcy after Napoleon, it could not be rebuilt and the parish was dissolved in 1805.
parentsMorten Mathiasen Rostoft b.c.1721; married 1 Anna Knudsdatter Leegaard (d.1766-1769); m.2. Kirstine Poulsdatter c.1768 in Copenhagen; died after 1801 in Copenhagen; occupation: brandy burner; residence in 1787 Census Norway Street 154, Copenhagen; a widower living with unm. dau Marn Rostoft 28, Poul Rostoft 12, Niels Rostoft 8, and Sophia Hendrichs 28 unm dau.; in 1801 Census, Morten 83 was living in household of Jens Niesen 51 and his wife and several boarders in Rosenborg Quarter, Copenhagen. His wife Kirstine Poulsdatter died before 1787 in Copenhagen

Spouse 2Anna Christina/Cathrine Thomasdatter Werlin, b.c.1777 Astrup Sogn, Falster Sonder Herred, Maribo Amt, Denmark; d. 15 May 1854 in Copenhagen; daughter of Thomas Tengelsen Werlin and Christiane Nicolaisdatter Jacobsen; married firstly Hans Birnbaum and 2. Hans Langsted Dreyer 8 October 1800 at Sankt Marie, Helsingor, Frederiksborg;

Baptismal records for the daughters of Hans Langsted Dreyer and first wife Cathrine Rostoft:
1.Friderica Kirstine Langsted Dreyer, Ch. 10 November 1784 at Holmens Sogn (Parish), Copenhagen; died January 1785 Copenhagen, buried Kobenhavn Holmens Kirke

2.Friderica Kirstine Dreyer, b.c.April 1786 at Holmens sogn, Copenhagen; died 14 July 1827 Helsingor Skt. Olai sogn, Fredericksborg; married 1. Andreas Carstensen Meinertzen, married 2. Mads Jacob Hammer

3.Edel Sophia Dreyer, Ch. 12 August 1791 at Holmens sogn Copenhagen; died 1793

4.Edel Sophia Dreyer, b.c. September 1793 and bapt. 4 October 1793 Holmens sogn, Sokkelund District, Copenhagen; died 13 March 1838 Helsingor Skt, Olai sogn; married Christian Rudolph Beyer on 1 October 1833 St Marie, Helsingor; illegitimate son, Lars Poulsen, born 28 December 1823, Baptised 18 January 1824 (in church), father’s name Lars Poulsen of Helsingor.

5.Christiane Hamanine/Hamaine Dreyer, Ch. 26 November 1788 at Holmens Sogn, Copenhagen; died unknown; married Poul Andersen

Baptismal records for children of Hans Langsted Dreyer and second wife Anna Catherine Thomasdatter Werlin

1.Fridericha Tengelina Dreyer, b.16 November 1800 Helsingor Skt. Marie sogn; died 4 October 1850 in Copenhagen Holmens sogn; married Laurs Jensen Hollensted; issue Henriette Laurine Fridericke Hollensted

2.Andreas Christian Dreyer, b. 9 September 1802 Helsingor Skt, Olai sogn; died 10 May 1835 in St Thomas, Danske Vestindien; married Johanne Justine Schonning
Occupation: Laege paa Skt. Thomas

3.Friderich Wilhelm Dreyer, b. 23 September, 1804 Helsingor; died unknown

4.Carl Arnoldus Dreyer, b. 5 September, 1806 Helsingorl died unknown

5.Amalia Jensine Dreyer, b. 31 March 1810 Helsingor; died 11 September, 1883 in Aarhus; married Carl Wilhelm Langberg; issue: Wilhelm Langberg; Mathilde Bigitte Langberg

6.Thomas Ferdinand Dreyer, b. 20 November 1814 Helsingor; died 8 July 1867 in Hillerod, buried Helsingor; married Marie Vilhelmine Wolsted; issue Ferdinand Vilhelm Andreas Dreyer b.1844; Carl Christopher Dreyer b.1846; Vilhelmine Frederikke Dreyer b.1850; Frederik Wilhelm Dreyer b.1852 m. Caroline Marie Ostergaard; Charlotte Amalie Dreyer b.1854 m.Lars Andersen Jensen; Caroline Mathilde Dreyer b.1856 m. Niels Hansen Jensen; Viggo Christian Dreyer b.1859; Christian Emil Dreyer b.1863, all born Hillerod.


FATHER of Hans Langsted Dreyer:

born: 25 August 1727 Odense, Odense, Fyn
died: 8 January 1787 in Odense Vor Frue sogn
parents: Jens Hansen Dreyer, til Raschenberg, senere kaldt (now called) Juelsberg; and Anna Elisabeth Haman, til Raschenberg senere kaldt Juelsberg
married: 22 March 1752 to Frederikke Sophie Langsted
siblings: Sara Dreyer; Hans Jensen Dreyer; Woldborg Dreyer; Daniel Dreyer; Margareta Sophia Dreyer; Christiane Dreyer; Catharina Dreyer; Peder Dreyer
Property: Ditch Bjerggaard; 1752 place of residence Overgade 19, Odense
Occupation: 20 August 1752- Master Grocery feast
Occupation: grocer, councilor, owner of ‘Grotebjerggaarrd’; 1753 grocery store in Odense
Place of residence: 1769- Odense Sonder Neighbourhood

MOTHER of Hans Langsted Dreyer:

born: c.1736 in St Knud, Odense, Odense
married: 22 March 1752 in Our Lady, Odense, Odense
parents: Hans Nielson Langsted b. 1690, occupation: Kammerraad, Regimentskvartemester/Councilor and Regimental Quartermaster (father Niels Langsted b.c.1664 in St Hils, Odense) married 29 March 1717 in Sct. Knud, Odense to Johanne Hieronimusen Berndtz b.c.1695 in St His, Odense (dau. Of Hieronimus Christiansen b.c.1668 in St His, Odense and wife Else.
died: 26 June 1798 in Odense Vor Frue sogn

GRANDPARENTS of Hans Lansted Dreyer:


Records have: Jens Hansen Dreyer, til Raschenberg, senere kaldt (now called) Juelsberg  (ie. owner of manor and farm of Raschenberg estate)
Born: c.1690-1699 Odense, Fyn, Denmark
Parents: Hans Simmensen Dreyer and Woldborg Jensdatter Meyer
Siblings: Elisabeth Marie Dreyer; Hans Hansen Dreyer; Simon Hansen Dreyer; Hans Peter Dreyer; Arnold Hansen Dreier
Burial: Jens Dreyer and Anna Elisabeth Haman’s tombstone is depicted in Odense/St Canute's Cathedral, S. Knudsen, 'Funerary Monuments', page 809 in 'Danmarsk Churches, Odense County 8-10', published by the National Museum 1996
Occupation: Grocery Store in Odense; merchant
Occupationcancellieraad i Raschenberg (Cancelli + Raad- member of the Cancelli Council. The Council had to ensure the community understood and respected the King's decisions, and worthy members of the community would become members of the council.)

Married: Anna Elisabeth Haman 3 June 1722 at Odense, Skt Knuds, d.15 March 1769 (dau of Christian Haman [1673-1728, occupation: Kobmand og oldermand/merchant and alderman in Odense and Sara Rasmusdatter Ǿstrup [died 17 November 1747]  who was daughter of Rasmus Adamsen [b.1640 d.1701 Odense- occup: haulage] and Sara Pedersdatter Ǿstrup [d.1732 Odense- the village of  Østrup is about 15 kms north of Odense, so the family probably originated from there].

Issue: Sara Dreyer; Hans Jensen Dreyer; Christian Haman Dreyer; Woldborg Dreyer; Daniel Dreyer; Margareta Sophia Dreyer; Christiane Dreyer; Catharina Dreyer; Peder Dreyer
Elected Alderman for Kraemmer Guild in 1735
Elected Member Kommercekollegium 1736
Elected Councilor 1743
Princess Control 66 Mark Extraordinary Royal. Tax” in 1749
Died 30 August 1753 Aunslev p Svendborg a.; buried 21 Sept 1753 Odense St Knud
Died 30 August 1753 in Pa Raschenberg Hovedgard, Aundslev sogn, Fyn, Denmark, buried Sct. Knuds Kirke, Odense, Fyn, Denmark
NB The estate of Raschenberg, manor and farm, lies exactly where Juelsberg lies today. Raschenberg was bought by Gregers Christian Juel in 1776, hence the name change. Juel died young (aged 38) and his wife constructed the grand elegant mansion of Juelsberg which was completed in 1786.

Jens Dreyer and his wife Anna Elisabeth Haman, and her parents Christian Haman and Sara Ǿstrup, and Jens Dreyer's mother Woldborg Jensdatter Meyer (with 2nd husband Rasmus Lauritsen) were buried in Odense Cathedral, also called St Canute's Cathedral. The cathedral dates back 900 years. The Danish king Canute the Saint and his brother Benedict were killed by the people in 1086 at the High Altar of the local priory. The cathedral was built on the same site two centuries later. Canute was canonised as a saint and is the patron saint of Denmark. Canute's and Benedict's bones are in the cathedral, as are King Hans (d.1513), his son King Christian II and their queens and two sons. The cathedral has undergone several refurbishments down the centuries including in 1754, just after the Dreyers and Hamans were buried inside the cathedral. Many of the graves and wall monuments have since been re-positioned, but the Dreyer tombstone is one of only seven of the older original stones that survive in its original state (others have been cut down or rewritten), and the Haman's wall monument is one of only 23 that survive. The Dreyer stone  is located in the crypt where the bones of St Canute and his brother Benedict are on display along with the graves of the kings. They were obviously high status families in Odense.

The monuments are featured in an article on Danish churches- Odense (pages 782, 808, 812, 883/84, 902/903):

Tombstone No 7: Counsellor Jens Dreyer († 1753and his wifeAnna Elisabeth

Haman († 1769)

The description written in Danish translates as (Google):

Kancelliråd/Councillor Jens Dreyer, Raschenberg, purchaser and merchant Odense († 1753) and his wife, Anna Elisabeth Haman († 1769) with their children and family (Mumme 170). Cf.. † funeral
Grey limestone, 212x116 cm. Inscription with rapt capitals, names italicized capital letters;
traces of black padding. Over scripture field immersed field with relief of the Risen Christ
with victory tab, framed by cloud formations; Future bottom impersonation, flanked by two
stumps and equipped with quill, blackboard, laugh and overhead an hourglass. Frame Away with foliage and seashells with inmates hjørnemedaljoner, which can be seen the four evangelist characters, all with scrolls by name in rapt capitals; top . Matthew and  John, at the bottom
 Markus and Lukas.
At one end 4/4 extremely long, at the other end 3½ cubits long, width 6/4 cubits (2,67-2,19mx4,08 m).
Acquired by Jens Dreyer in 1742 by merging of two or probably three older funerals
Presumably identical gravestones, mentioned in 1752 inventory (no. II, 6) which placed in the hallway south of the choir, that is, the family burial († funeral no. II, 6) in the southern side ship 3. subjects 'by the small Corsdør when man goes up to the Glorupe funeral '. Refurbished 1753.321 Same location 1811 (Vedel Simonsen, Collections) and
1844 (Mumme 170). After 1875 in the second subject of the crypt southern transept.

Plan of crypt showing position of Dreyer gravestone, and his mother Woldborg Meyer (with 2nd husband Rasmus Lauritsen)

The bones of King Canute in the crypt

Interior of crypt- St Canute and Benedict bones in raised glass cases
Dreyer stone to the right off screen, and mother Woldborg Meyer to the left

Wall monument no. 20, 1736, for Christian
Haman (1728) and his wife, Sara Østrup (1747).

Description in Danish, translates as (Google):

 Epitaph No. 20) (Fig. 647), 1736. Christian Haman købog merchant, † 30th January 1728 in his age 55th years, with his wife, Sara Østrup, † 17. November 1747 in his age 76 years. The couple was blessed with three living children, Christian Henrik Haman, † 21st in June 1725 in his 25th year; Margretha Sophia Haman, † 23rd May 1731 in its 25th year, 1 ° G. M. Peder Fugl, grocer, † first April 1728, 2 ° G.M. Bonde Simonsen, alderman who lived her together with a daughter and died as a councilor and landsdom (m) is at his farm Elvedgård 6 sept. 1765. The eldest daughterAnna Elisabeth Haman lives in marriage with Jens Dreyer, purchase and merchant in town (Mumme 236f.). Cf.. Gravestones no. 21, † tombstone no. 94 and † funeral no. VI, 4th
Memorial plaque of gray limestone, 157,5x100 cm.
Danish inscription in relief capitals, names, however, in italics, all in recessed, horizontal bands. The inscription, culminating in scripture (Rev. 14.13), framed of the portal-like frame formed by båndakantus, between which the larger leaf ornaments, single flowers or flower displays. In the portal bow a crown, flanked by two putti with palm branches, crown (TV.) and trombone (th.). 
NE fot. 1987. - Wall monument no. 20, 1736, for Christian Haman († 1728) and his wife, Sara Østrup († 1747). it sits a grieving woman covered hair with head resting in his left hand and eyes turned to the pedestal with laurbærkranset skull, while her right hand disperse flowers. The stone that is sortstafferet and gilt rim away, relief decoration and inscriptions, is cracked right through the upper third. 1736 paid madam Haman (Sara Østrup) for letting a stone insert in the wall by his and the deceased husband's † burial (no. VI, 4) 0.6
Originally located in the middle of the ship's third mainstay in sydrækken (h1), west of the pulpit and close the family burial no. VI, the fourth For with Herholdt restoration moved to the south wall, directly next to the earlier location, ie the southern side ship 7. subjects east of window.

Floorplan of Odense Cathedral showing positions of memorials- 
Dreyer floor tombstone at G7 (in crypt) and Haman wall monument at E20. 
The six royal graves are marked K, and the two glass cases holding the bones of St Canute and brother Benedict, in crypt near G8.
Haman gravestone at G21, and post medieval Haman family graves at column 'hi'.
Dreyer post medieval family graves near G18 under stairs.
Woldborg Jensdatter Meyer, mother of Jens Dreyer, buried with 2nd husband Rasmus Lauritsen at G24.

Odense Cathedral

Odense Cathedral from the park- statue of Hans Christian Anderson in front

GREAT GRANDPARENTS of Hans Langsted Dreyer:

HANS SIMMENSEN DREYER, known as “Hans Simonsen Bendrejer” 
(father of Jens Hansen Dreyer), and WOLDBORG JENSDATTER MEYER

Hans Simmensen
born: 1634 Odense (Seest praestegard); son of Simon
siblings: Niels Simonsen; Anders Simonsen; NN Simonsen
married 1. Marie Daniel’s daughter
married 2. 3 January 1683 Elisabeth Hansdatter at Odense
married 319 Feb 1690 Woldborg Jensdatter Meyer at Odense Skt Knuds (b. 1670, m.2. of Rasmus Lauritzen 13 April 1706; d. 8 Feb 1747 Odense St Canute; Woldborg died before 1747)
issue: Elisabeth Marie Dreyer; Hans Hansen Drejer; Simon Hansen Dreyer; Hans Peter Drejer; Jens Hansen Dreyer;
died: 15 Sept 1703 Odense
Occupation: Kunstdrejer (kunst means art?)
                    Name ‘dreyer/dreier’ often meant one who turned wood to create things

Ancestry of Frederiike Sophie Langsted (wife of Christian Haman Dreyer)

Map of placenames on the trees above

Notably, the ancestors of Frederikke Sophie Langsted come from the mainland of Jutland, and from the island of Bornholm (between Sweden and Poland/Germany, but belonging to Denmark, and from the southern county of Sweden.

The island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea to the east of Denmark has in the past, been fought over by Sweden and Denmark during the 1600's. The main industries on the island included fishing, arts and crafts such as glass production and pottery, and dairy farming. The topography of the island consists of dramatic rock formations in the north, sloping down towards pine forests and deciduous forests and farmlands in the middle, and sandy beaches in the south. There is a ruin of Hammershus fortress in the NW tip of the island, the largest medieval fortress in northern Europe, a testament to the importance of its location.

Conclusion on the mother of Lars Poulsen:

Lars Poulsen Junior was the illegitimate son of Edel Sophie (known as Sophie) Dreyer and Lars Poulsen Senior. He was born in December 1823 in the county of Frederiksborg which is north of Copenhagen on the island of Zealand. Sophie came from a respectable family living in the town of Helsingor (Elsinore in English) and her unplanned pregnancy probably shamed her family, so she was sent to the home of Anders Nielson who lived in a small village of Skovhuse near Esbonderup, a few miles west of Helsingor, to have her baby. Notably a hospital was in Esbonderup. What relation Anders Nielson was to the family is unknown, but he was named as one of the godparents. Sophie's father was employed in the bureau of the Admiralty and the Commissariat , and his ancestors were respected members of the local community in Odense on the neighbouring island of Fyn, and were elected town councilors. Sophie married Christian Frederick Rudolph Beyer, a brick layer, in 1833, but just five years later Sophie died, leaving her 15 year old son with her husband. Beyer must have taken Lars as his apprentice as Lars also became a brick layer. It would appear that Lars had nothing to do with his sire Lars Poulsen senior who had also married but remained in Helsingor where he had a grocer's shop and then an inn. 


In Lars Poulsen Junior’s baptismal record, his father was described as:
Lars Poulsen, residing in Stjernegaden in Helsingøer, ‘Spaekhoker’/huckster

There are several records for ‘Lars Poulsens’ in the Frederiksborg area in the Census records and the birth/marriage records, but as he was recorded as a ‘huckster’, or ‘Høker’, the following records seem to be the most relevant and likely, and show that Lars Poulsen Senior was born c. 1790 in Bogense in Odense County on the neighbouring island of Fyn:

1840 Danish Census

1845 Census

NB Place of birth is listed as Bogense which is in Odense County on the neighbouring island of Fyn.
In the 1845 Census, Lars' daughter Therese Pouline Poulsen, aged 24 is living with Lars Nielsen, a cabinetmaker, and his wife Emilie Henningsen and their 2 year old daughter Julie, and the occupation translates as "in care". Presumably it means that Therese is taking care of the child; or, Therese had a disability. Notably, Emilie, the wife's surname was Henningsen which is the name of the first husband of her mother (Anne Kirsten Backe), so it would appear that Emilie Henningsen was Therese Poulsen's half sister (aged 30 so born 1815).

Map of Bogense in Odense County, on island of Fyn, Denmark
(NB Raschenberg estate of Jens Dreyer, just north of Nyborg)


This wife, Catherine Nodskov, is the one named in the above Census records of 1840 and 1845

(Danish Archives- Helsingor  Sankt Maria Sogn- Kontraministerialbog p.204)

Information on marriage record: 17 Sept 1833, Helsingor St Maria Church, Fredericksborg
Lars Poulsen, 43, Spækhǿker (ie. profession as a huckster), widower, marries Catharine Magrethe Nǿdskou 36 "jomfrue" (ie. unmarried but older than a young woman). witnesses Kjǿbmand Brandt and Brygger Sǿren Hansen.

A POSSIBLE PREVIOUS MARRIAGE (NB. This was one month before the birth of Lars Junior)

No further records found of this marriage.

FIRST MARRIAGE of LARS POUSLEN in 1816 (their dau. Therese named in 1840 Census living with Lars and wife Cathrine)

Their daughter:

Anne Kirstine Backe firstly married Peter Henningsen (b.1786 Birkerod, Fredericksborg) on 15 Nov 1811 at Sankt Marie, Helsingor. It would appear that they had a daughter named Emilie in 1815 (see 1845 Census record with Therese Poulsen living with Emilie Henningsen and her husband Lars Nielsen, above). 
Anne Backe had a child, presumed illegitimate, named Ane Kirstine Magrethe Smidtz, Chr. 22 April 1816, father only named as Smidtz. She then married Lars Poulsen on 17 March 1819 in Helsingor.

In the 1850 Census, Lars was a 'Pub holder' or Inn keeper:

In the Census records, Lars Poulsen states he was born in Bogense in the County of Odense which is on the island of Fyn, next to the island of Zealand. There is a Census record for Broe/Bro near Brenderup which is adjacent to Bogense, and a matching baptismal record for a Lars Poulsen, which are probably relevant.


Map of Bogense, Bro, and Brenderup on the island of Fyn (north of Odense) showing close proximity

Therefore this baptism record would appear to be relevant.

(Danish Archives- Brenderup Sogn- Enesteministerialbog p.114- 18 Oct 1789)

Information from the baptism record (thanks to Morten for this information):
Brenderup Sogn: den 8 Octob confirmeret Daaben over Povel Jǿrgensens Barn frq Bro kaldet Lars frembaaren af Sogne Præ
stens Datter Constance Alexandrine, Fadderne vare Lars Gregersen Morfaderen fra Brenderup, Hans Jensen, Niels Henricsen, Jǿgen Andersen's Kone og Hans Smeds Kone, alle af Bro.
October 8 (1789), confirmed the baptism of Povel Jǿrgensens child from (the village) of Bro, named Lars. The child was held by (godmother) Constance Alexandrine (the daughter of the parish priest). The witnesses were Lars Gregersen the mother's father from the village Brenderup, Hans Jensen, Niels Henricsen, Jorgen Andersen's wife and Hans Smed's wife, all from the village of Bro.

The record above names Lars' mother, Maren Larsdatter as the daughter of Lars Gregersen of Brenderup.

In the 1801 Census, Lars Gregersen, aged 69 (b.1732), 'landless farmer of hops', was living with his second wife Anne Margrethe Jespersdatter, aged 49, and his son Jorgen Larsen aged 21, and their children Jesper Larsen 14, Karen Margrethe Larsdatter 10.
His brother, Mikkel Gregersen aged 67 and his wife Maren Andersdatter 70, live next door.

In the 1787 Census, Lars Gregersen, aged 52 (b.1735), farmer and labourer, was living at Brenderup with his second wife Anna Jespersdatter 37, and "children of his first marriage", Anna Maria Larsdatter 14, Christen Larsen 12, Johanna Margreta Larsdatter 9, and Jorgen Larsen 7. 
So the marriage must have been recent, as their first child Jesper was born later that year.
Daughter Maren Larsdatter, 21 was living with the vicar of Brenderup, Rasmus Edsberg 66, his wife and daughters including Constance Alexandrina Edsberg aged 12 who would become the godmother of Maren's son Lars Poulsen. Maren was employed as a servant, the cook, for the Edsberg family. There were several servants employed by the Edsbergs.

Living next door to Lars Gregersen was his brother Michel Gregersen aged 51 and wife, and nearby was an elder brother Niels Gregersen, aged 56, wife and two children.

Maren, daughter of Lars Gregersen, was baptised on 10 August 1766 at Brenderup:
        (Ref: Enesteministerialbog 1705 FVD-1801, Brenderup Sogn- p64)

If these records are relevant, then Lars was the son of Poul/Poval Jorgensen from the village of Bro which is  between the towns of Brenderup and Bogense.  Poul's  wife in the Census was named Maren Larsdatter daughter of Lars Gregersen of Brenderup. Notably Maren is 21 years younger than her husband (so maybe a second marriage for Poul). Poul was aged 56 in 1801, ie born 1745, while Maren was aged 34, ie. born in 1766. They also have four younger children in 1801 Census: Karen 9, Frederiche 5, Hans, 2 and Rasmus 1.

Conclusion on the background of Lars Poulsen Senior:

Lars Poulsen, was probably born/baptised in Bro near Bogense in Odense County in October 1789, the son of a hops farmer/crofter. Lars moved to Helsingor before marrying Anne Kierstine Backe in 1819.
Anne K. Backe, b.1789, had previously been married to Peter Henningsen in 1811, and in 1816 had a daughter by a man named Smidtz (possibly illegitimate).
Lars and Anne Kierstine Backe had a daughter Therese Pouline Poulsen Ch 30 June 1820.
Lars possibly had a second wife named Johanne Dahr (b.1800), married on 18 November 1823 (just a month before the birth of Lars Poulsen by Sophie Dreyer), as Lars’s birth year is given as 1790. No further records found of this relationship, and this marriage is speculative.
Lars Poulsen, described as a widower, born 1790, married Cathrine Margrethe Nodskov in September 1833 in Helsingor (though not listed in the 1834 Census). They were living in the Market Town of Helsingor in the 1840 Census with his 20 year old daughter Therese Pouline, and his business was described as a Hoker/huckster.
In the 1845 Census, they are still living in the Market Town, in No. 171 Anne Street still described as a ‘Hoker’/huckster; his birth place named as Bogense. He employs a domestic servant.
By the 1850 Census, Lars is an inn or pub holder, or Værtshusholder , still at No. 171 Anne Street, and is still living with his wife. Again, his birthplace is given as Bogense, Odense County. He has a hired domestic and 20 people are living in the same building, so presumably his pub was on the ground floor.
Neither are listed in any other Census record, so presumably have died before the 1860 Census.


Baptismal record of Charlotte and twin sister Ingeborg (born on 25 November 1825 and Christened on 17 March 1826 January 1826)

(Danish Archives- Trinitatis Sogn- Kontraministerialbog 1822-1833F- p.162)

In the 1840 Census, Charlotte is listed with her family in Copenhagen. Her widowed father is named as Thorlak Gudmunsen, aged 53, a 'Stolemagermester', which is a 'master chair maker/manufacturer/repairer' (as 'mester' means trained craftsman with his own firm, he probably would have employed others). There is also her twin sister Ingeborg and younger brother Rasmus living with them. Her elder brother Magnus is living elsewhere, with Johan Schmidt, a master blacksmith (who appears to have been his half-brother, son of his mother's first marriage), Magnus, aged 17, described as a "laere dreng" (apprentice)- by 1845 he was listed as a bricklayer's apprentice. The fact that Charlotte's elder brother was a bricklayer, may be the reason she met Lars Poulsen, also a bricklayer. There are four other families living at this address in the census.
By the next census in 1845, Thorlac is no longer listed. Charlotte was working as a maid for Army Captain Christian Walther.
In fact, there are no further records of Thorlak Gudmunsen, so one could assume he was dead.

1840 Danish Census

Danish Archives- 1840 Census Kobenhavn- Rosenborg I Quarter, Spring Street, p.73

The birth records for Charlotte and her three siblings:

The birth/baptism records reveal that their mother was named Charlotte Friderikke Kjaer. The spelling of their father's name varies considerably: in the Census he was Thorlac Gudmunsen, and in the above records: Thorlack Gudmundsen; Thorlak Gudmondsen; and Thorlag Gudmundsen.

Mother: Charlotte Friderikke Kjaerwho was dead before 1840 (Thorlac described as a widower in the 1840 Census),  was married before, in c.1810.There are records for three children of Charlotte Friderike Kjaer and Johan Gottlieb Schmidt also baptised at Trinitatis, Kobenhavn where her other children were baptised: 

Charlotte Frideriche Johansen Chr. 30 Dec 1810; 
Caroline Wilhelmine Johansen Chr. 29 Sept 1814; 
Johan Gottlieb Johansen (Schmidt) Chr. 1 August 1819.

Charlotte Kjaer married Thorlach Gudmundsen on 7 December 1821 at Trinitatis Church in Kobenhavn. They were both aged 35 years, and it confirms Charlotte's previous married name of Schmidt. The two records below are from the original Trinitatis Parish records:
(Danish Archives- Vielseregister for Trinitatis Sogn p197)

(Danish Archives- Trinitatis Sogn- Enesteministerialbog 1660-1833- p.172)

(Danish Archives- Trinitatis Sogn- Hovedministerialbog p.274)

Marriages of Charlotte's siblings, and issue:

1. Magnus Thorlak Gudmundsen married Juliane Marie Hansen and had issue: Ottogine Nathalie Gudmundsen Chr 20 June 1858 at Garnisons Parish Copenhagen; Juliane Marie Gudmundsen Chr 22 July 1860 at Holmen's Parish Copenhagen; Thorlach Emanuel Gudmunsen Chr 2 November 1862 at Fredericksberg, Copenhagen; Edvard Bern Hard Gudmunsen Chr 13 Sept 1868 at Fredericksberg, Copenhagen.

By the 1880 Census, his wife Juliane is described as a widow.
Magnus's occupation was a bricklayer

2. Rasmus Christian Gudmundsen married Grethe Dorthe Kirstine Nielsdatter (b.1827) on 10 April 1856 at Frue Kirke Kobenhavn. A daughter, Valborg Margrethe Gudmundsen was born 26 June 1859 at Garnisons Parish Kobenhavn to Rasmus Christian Gudmundsen and Dorthea Borresen, so presumably this was their daughter.

Rasmus's occupation was a plumber

The 1850 Census has an Ingeborg Gudmunsen, 24, widow, occupation- maid, living with another widow, Emilie Stange 33 at St Anne's Gothergade, Copenhagen- whether this is Charlotte's sister is unconfirmed. Coincidentally, on the same page, there is a Thorleif Gudmandson Repp from Rejkjavik, Iceland, translater aged 56, his wife and children aged 19, 16, and 7. They are also listed in the 1845 Census with an elder daughter as well.)

The origins of Thorlak Gudmundsen

The 1840 census, and the birth records of his children are the only records yet found on Thorlak that can be confirmed. Strangely he does not appear in the 1787, 1801, 1803, 1834/5 , 1845, 1850, 1860 Danish Census records, nor does his name appear in the Danish Birth records. 

However, there are two possible scenarios for his birth that show in the records.

The first record which may be relevant is a marriage record in Copenhagen for a man of the same name, but born a generation before, and therefore could be his father, or related- notably in Garnisons Parish which is the same parish in which his son Magnus's first child was baptised. Garnison's Church is also known as the Garrison Church, built in the 17th century for military personnel. 

There is wide discrepancy in the spelling of his forename and surname. In just three of the records below it is spelt Thorlak, Torlak and Thorland.
This Thorlak Gudmandsen married Maren Nielsdatter. Note the two dates differ which could indicate the first on 9 April 1784 was a betrothal record, and the second on 12 May 1784 the marriage date:

(Danish Archives/Arkivalieronline - Garnisons Sogn- Volume 1780V-1799V, p.23)
9 April 1784
Information on record:
Marriage: 9 April (1784), Thorlek Gudmansen U.K (short of Ung Karl- viz a young unmarried man) and Pige (ie. young woman) Maren Nielsdatter, Hr Regiments Mr Wolqvatz (her employer- as a servant), Bestmen: Peder Berndtsen , S.__ and Borre Andersen

(Danish Archives- Garnisons Sogn- Volume 1769V-1815V p.67- 12 May 1784) 
NB. different spelling for Thorlak and Gudmundsen in the two records

There is a baptism record for their daughter, Ellen Kirstine on 6 February 1785. Notably the baptism is recorded at Garnisons Parish in the volume of German baptismal records, not the volume of Danish baptismal records for this parish. And again, the spelling of her father's name is now 'Thorland'- his profession is described as 'Arbeitsm(and)/Arbejdsmand' which is a labourer.

(Danish Archives- Garnisons Sogn- V.1772-1797 p.165)

As our Thorlak was aged 35 when he married in December 1821, and age 53 in the 1840 Census, his birth year was circa 1786, which would be appropriate with the above records, so this would appear to be the most relevant. The fact that the two names are the same which does not match the Danish naming system (where one would expect his father to be named Gudmund ____ ), is problematic, although there are exceptions, viz. Lars Poulsen and his father Lars Poulsen.  Until the act of surnames changed in 1828, the practice was: the surname of the son was his fathers name + sen ( in very old time "søn", later on "søn" changed to "sen" in Denmark/Norway, but "son" in Sweden).; and + datter (daughter) if the child was a girl eg. the daughter above named as 'Ellen Thorlandsdatter'.

This family does not appear in the 1787 Census, however, they do appear in the 1801 Census, and notably there is no son listed as living with them. Torlak's name has the 'K' and 'L' switched to spell 'Terkel', incorrectly, but he is with his wife Maren Nielsen and daughter Ellen Christine. Torlak is revealed as a sailor in the Danish Navy, living in Delfingade/Delfin Street in the Nyboder area which was built by Christian IV as barrack accommodation for his naval personnel (common sailors) and their families. The accommodation was generally small- only two rooms and an attic, plus shared kitchen and toilet/bathroom facilities. In the record (below), Torlak and family are quartered with Christian Moller and family plus a third woman.

The fact that there is no son listed would seem to indicate that this is not our Thorlak's family, but can't be completely discounted as young Thorlak could have been apprenticed, or in the navy, and living elsewhere, as, by 1801 he was turning 15. Notably the daughter Ellen Christine's age is incorrect and should have been 16.
The elder Torlak's  age of 38 means he was born c.1763.
There is also a record in the 1787 Census of a Thor Gudmonsen, aged 51 (b.c.1736), but "single" living as a lodger in Snaren's Quarter, Copenhagen, with Ole Simensen 53, a merchandiser, and his wife. Thor is described as a "timber Svend". Again, this could be irrelevant.

1801 Census

Danish Archives- 1801 Census- Kobenhavn- Navy 2 Division 2 Matros/Navy Company p4

At this time, the country was Denmark-Norway and had been in conflict with Sweden for 200 years. Denmark's role as gateway to the Baltic was instrumental in the development of strong Danish naval power. It is possible that the sailor, Torlak Gudmundsen was from Norway.

However there is also an alternative record. The name Thorlak is very uncommon in Denmark, and originates from Norway, but it is also a common name in Icelandwhere sons are often named after the patron saint of Iceland, St Thorlak who lived there in the 13th century. Looking at Icelandic BDM records, there are several records of the name 'Thorlak Gudmundsson' in the 1700's, including a birth in 1787 in southern Iceland. 
It is possible that Thorlak was born in Iceland and emigrated to Denmark as either a child, or as an adult. Or, alternatively, the Torlak Gudmansen in the 1784 marriage record above, may have been the one to emigrate to Denmark and/or to join the Danish naval service. It should be noted that Iceland was under Danish rule, and in 1783, there was a catastrophic event when there was a volcanic eruption at Mt Laki. This was the world's second largest volcanic eruption in the past 1000 years. At the time, the population of Iceland was 50,000, and in the ensuing years, 10,000 of those people would die as a result of the explosion. Laki is a volcanic system in the south-east of Iceland, and in 1783 it was ripped open with such force that a huge fissure produced scores of boiling craters, and over the next eight months, it spewed lava over 600 square kilometers, and belched more toxic gases than any eruption in the last 150 years. The effects of the eruption were felt all over the northern hemisphere. People died because of starvation, as the farm animals died and the crops died, affecting the whole country. The toxic gases poisoned the plants and vegetation and thus the livestock. Eight out of ten sheep are thought to have died and half of all cattle and horses perished. Extreme heat caused by the sulphuric gases, then turned into extreme winters caused by the build-up of heat absorbing sulphur dioxide in the stratosphere. The gases also drifted over Europe, causing 20,000 deaths in Britain alone. The volcanic eruption at Mt Laki was only about 60 kms from the area where the family of Thorlak Gudmundson lived, in the county of Rangarcallasysla in southern Iceland. 

Whether Thorlak, (or his possible father, Thorlak Gudmansen), emigrated to Denmark from Iceland can't be verified but the following records should not be discounted, particularly as the birth year matches, and the events described above could account for his emigration to Denmark.

Marriage record
Baptism of wife

Notably, Gudrydur's birthplace of Keldur is in the same district, Rangarvallasysla.

There are several baptismal records for Gudmundur Sigurdsson between 1744 and 1765, so too difficult to pinpoint the correct record.

Apart from son, Thorlakur Gudmundsson Chr. 3 Feb 1787, this couple also had children:

i) Thorlakur Gudmundsson Chr. 12 June 1784 at Eyvindarmuli, Rangarvallasysla (notably the year after the eruption, so probably died, and their second son born in 1787, was named after him.)
ii) Gudny Gudmundsson Chr 17 Oct 1782 at Eyvindarmuli, Rangarvallasysla
iii) Magnus Gudmundsson Chr. 20 July 1795 at  Eyvindarmuli, Rangarvallasysla
(notably Magnus is the chosen name of Thorlac's eldest son)

The place named on these records is Eyvindarmuli in the county of Rangarvallasysla.

Eyvindarmuli is a parish in the south of the island, in the county of Rangarvallasysla, as marked on the map. 

The close proximity of the volcanic eruption to the area where this family lived could certainly account for the emigration of Thorlak's family to Denmark. It could also be possible that Thorlak emigrated when he became of age, as the country's climate continued to grow colder during the 19th century resulting in mass emigration, mainly to the New World- about 15,000 people emigrated during this period.

However, the first record of the marriage in 1784 of Thorlak Gudmandsen in Copenhagen, referred to above, could also be relevant. And as discussed, it is also possible that he emigrated to Denmark following the volcanic eruption in 1783, and married in Denmark the following year.

As stated, there are several marriages for men of that name during the 1700's in Iceland, so the name appears to be a common one in Iceland, unlike Denmark where it is rare.

There is also the following baptism in Iceland (Family Search) which may be relevant. (NB. the different spellings in Iceland, using sson instead of sen on the end of the surname- this would revert to the Danish custom on records if he emigrated:

Notably, he had two siblings:
i) Sigurdr Gudmundsson bap 28 Jan 1755 at Reykjavik, Gullbringusysla, father Gudmund Myrahusum,
 and, possibly a twin sister,
ii) Ingebiorg Gudmundsson, bap 9 March 1755 at Reykjavik, Gullbringusysla, father Gudmund Myrarhusum 
Possibly the origin of Charlotte's twin sister's name of Ingeborg, and also the twin gene which occurs with our Charlotte and Ingeborg?

Or, records of Thorlak Gudmunsen in Denmark may be lost, or not yet discovered. Given that his children were born between 1823 and 1829, it is strange that the family does not appear in the 1834/35 Census's. Maybe they had left the country at that particular time, and returned by 1840. It could also be explained if Thorlak came from Norway and travelled back and forth.

                                                      Gudmundsen family tree



The newly developing science of genealogical DNA and specifically Y-DNA matching will probably gain momentum in the coming years and may play an important role in unraveling these family tree mysteries and help with matching family links. It may also pose new unanswerable genealogical questions as well. DNA can provide information about our ancestor's migratory paths through thousands of years as well as individual descent from one's forefathers. The same DNA markers are handed down from generation to generation for hundreds even thousands of years, with occasional mutations of individual markers in the DNA profile. DNA is the only genealogical record that is absolute proof of one's true heritage, and combined with the traditional genealogical paper trail, it promises an exciting future in family research.

Human DNA consists of about 3 million bases and more than 99% of those bases are the same in all people.
In the nucleus of each cell, the DNA molecule is packed into thread-like structures called chromosomes. Each chromosome is made up of DNA, containing thousands of genes which contain the instructions for our individual characteristics. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes: 22 pairs of numbered chromosomes, and one pair of sex chromosomes, X and Y. Each parent contributes one chromosome to each pair so that offspring get half of their chromosomes from their mother and half from the father. Males have one X and one Y chromosome, while females have two X chromosomes. 


There are several genealogical DNA testing companies, including FamilyTreeDNA (in the USA), which offer three types of tests: Y-DNA for males (testing the Y sex chromosome inherited from father to son), mtDNA tests for females and males (testing the X sex chromosome inherited down the female line and passed on to daughters and sons), and Autosomal.

ISOGG (international Society of Genetic Genealogy) describes Autosomal DNA used in genetic genealogy as “DNA which is inherited from the autosomal chromosomes inherited from both parents. An autosome is any of the numbered chromosomes, as opposed to the sex chromosome. Autosomes are numbered roughly in relation to their sizes, ie. Chromosome 1 has approximately 2,800 genes, while chromosome 22 has approximately 750 genes.”
When results of the Autosomal test are released, FamilyTreeDNA also gives you a list of matches with genetic cousins who have also taken the test and are in their database. The autosomal DNA tests can confirm relationships for all relationships from parent/child up to the second cousin level. For all relationships beyond that, genealogical information is also needed to find and prove the connection.

The FamilyTreeDNA (FTDNA) Family Finder test is designed to trace all of your ancestral lines (5 generations and beyond) using your autosomal DNA. It tests thousands of data points on your 22 autosomal chromosomes. Your results are then compared to others in the FTDNA database. 
The Family Finder software detects linked blocks (segments) of DNA that indicate a common ancestor. The number and size of these segments is used to determine how recently any two people are related. These tests also indicate your ethnic breakdown as they test all of your DNA inherited from all of your ancestors.

You share 50% of the DNA from each parent, and in each generation, after your parents, the percentage of DNA that you receive from any given ancestor is not exactly 50% of the previous generation, but close.
Example, on average:
50% inherited from mother and from father
25% from grandparents,
12.5% from great grandparents,
6.25% from 2x great grandparents,
3.125% from 3x great grandparents,
1.563% from 4x great grandparents
0.781% from 5x great grandparents,
0.3905% from 6x great grandparents
0.19525% from 7x great grandparents
0.0976% from 8 x great grandparents
0.0488% from 9x great grandparents, etc

The actual percentages vary from the average in individual cases, because of the random way that autosomal DNA is inherited. Each sibling may inherit a slightly different set of genes from each parent which means siblings aren’t genetically identical, except for identical twins. With each generation, DNA from ancestors is passed at random to the next generation and, over time, the less accurate the relationship predictor will be. There is a 90% chance that third cousins will share enough DNA for the relationship to be detected, but there is only a 50% chance with a fourth cousin.
The further back along the genealogical tree, the fewer genes are inherited, but there could be some particular genes that are carried down through the generations. One reason could be a type of mutation called an inversion, which is described as "a segment of DNA that has attached and then reattached in the reverse direction. Inverted segments of DNA cannot recombine so a child will inherit that entire segment or none of it. When two distantly related people inherit the same long inverted segment, it makes them seem more closely related than they actually are. The chances of two distant relatives both inheriting the inverted segment of DNA decreases with each generation, but, although less likely, it is possible that both distant relatives will inherit the block."

The author of this blog has taken a FTDNA Family Finder test, and was given a list of matching ‘cousins’ of various levels of relationship. As one of this author’s great grandfathers, Ferdinand Adolph Poulsen, was Danish, one of those listed matches was from Denmark, and on contacting him, the degree of relationship was eventually found. FTDNA suggested that the relationship was a 3rd to 5th cousin. The proven relationship proved much further back, although it should be noted that not all of our Danish lines have been traced back very far, so there could be a second unknown blood connection in another line (however, it should be noted that our Danish cousin has an extensive family tree and has traced all of his many lines back a considerable way, with no obvious second connection with my Danish ancestors). A third testee sharing the same segments on particular chromosomes would make it easier to identify a common ancestor (called triangulation), but as a third person has not yet been found, the genealogical paper trail had to be followed to determine the common ancestor. The fact that only one of the author’s eight great grandparents originated from Denmark, reducing the number of Danish ancestors that could be in common, it made finding the common ancestor a much easier task than if all of the great grandparents were from the same country.

The Family Finder test uses calculations that involve the total centimorgans (cMs) shared and the longest contiguous block. (In scientific terms, a centiMorgan, or cM, is a unit of recombinant frequency which is used to measure genetic distance. It is often used to imply distance along a chromosome, and takes into account how often recombination occurs in a region- ISOGG)
The total number of shared centiMorgans is less significant than the number and lengths of individual shared segments. It assumes that the aggregate length of each set of autosomal chromosomes is 3,400cM, and that each individual inherits 6,800cM of autosomal DNA, 3,400 cM from each parent, but needs to allow for random variation around the averages in individual cases.
While the author shares a total of 49.09 cM’s in 16 segments with the Danish cousin (M.S.) in Chromosomes 1,2,4,6,7,8,11,12,17,& 22, only Chromosomes 11 and 17 share a fairly large segment greater than 5 cM’s.
Chromosome 11 = 5.32 cM (plus 2.67cM, and 2.6 cM in different locations on Chromosome 11)
Chromosome 17 = 12.58 cM
NB. Segments greater than 10 cM are considered significant when determining closeness of relationships.
The following test result shows the shared common segment of DNA greater than 5cM, in Chromosomes 11 and 17 (marked in orange):

Chromosome match with M.S.

Shared chromosome segments (16) and number of cM's (total 49.09cMs) shared between author and Danish cousin (M.S.)
(NB. Chromosomes 11 and 17)

The blog author and the Danish cousin found their common ancestors to be:
 Rasmus Adamsen born 1640 at Odense on the Danish island of Fyn and his wife Sarah Ǿstrup who died 1732 Odense. They married in 1670 in Odense.
1. Their eldest daughter Sarah Rasmusdatter Ǿstrup, (b.1671 Odense) married Christian Haman in 1699 in Odense, and their daughter Anna Elisabeth Haman married Jens Hansen Dreyer, the author’s ancestors in Odense.
2. Their younger son Frederik Ǿstrup (b.1686 Odense) married Vibeke Feldman and their daughter Sarah Ǿstrup married Lauritz Langhoff, and their descendant is our Danish cousin.

Rasmus Adamsen and Sarah Ǿstrup are therefore the blog author’s 8x great grandparents, and our Danish cousin’s 7x great grandparents, which makes us 8th cousins once removed, and should therefore share very little DNA.
According to ISOGG, the expected total amount of cM’s shared by an 8th to 9th cousin would be between 0.014cMs and 0.055cM’s, less than 0.000763% of shared DNA, and the chance of detecting an 8th to 9th cousin would be 0.06% to 0.24%, so the amount of our shared cM’s is highly unusual (ie. 49 cM’s total and the largest shared segment of 12.58cMs).
Multiple shared common ancestors would increase the predicted shared cM’s, which would appear to indicate another close connection, but the family tree above does not support that theory (although the ancestry of Lars Poulsen the elder who was born just north of Odense, at Bogense, is unknown and may prove to be the second link).
The ISOGG Autosomal DNA Statistics page estimates the possible relationship between two matches who share 13.28 cM’s, as a 4th cousin, or 3rd cousin twice removed, and 6.64 cM’s as a 4th cousin once removed, or 3rd cousin three times removed. And the larger the biggest individual segment the closer the relationship. But in this case that has proved an incorrect prediction.
And a study by Cambridge University (Kevin P. Donnelly, 1983) estimated the probability of no detectable DNA relationship with an 8x great grandparent as 57.53%, and with a 7x great grandparent as 37.43%. And the probability of no detectable DNA relationship with a 6th cousin as 89.9% and a 6th cousin once removed as 94.4%.
So the results of this particular autosomal test have challenged the established predictions quite considerably. Maybe the description of the inherited inversion mutation, above, applies in this case.

However, without the autosomal test, this author would not have discovered the extraordinary amount of information on Ferdinand Adolph Poulsen's ancestry in Denmark, which proves the potential value of DNA genealogical testing in breaking down those brick walls, and I discovered a genetically related Danish cousin in the process. 
The DNA test also proves without doubt that Ferdinand Adolph Poulsen was a genetic descendant of the Dreyers and Hamans, and Rasmus Adamsen and Sarah Ǿstrup, dating back to the mid 17th century, without any unexpected Non-Paternity Events in the direct line.

I must express my gratitude to my genetic Danish cousin, Morten, for his invaluable help in determining our relationship, and for all of his wonderful help and infinite patience in discovering and translating many of the invaluable documents found on the Dreyer family for me.

© B A Butler
Email contact:  butler1802 @    hotmail.com  (no spaces)

Link back to Introduction:

Links to all other chapters in this blog:

Tobin and Driscoll family in Tipperary Ireland

Tobin family settle in Gerringong, NSW, Australia in 1857

Tobin family settle in Tallebudgera Queensland in 1870

Life at Tallebudgera for the Tobin Family until 1892

Tobin family move back to NSW and Western Australia- deaths of Stephen and Mary

Stephen Tobin's sister Catherine Tobin- marriage to Timothy Guinea

Bushrangers in the family

Stephen Tobin's sister Ellen Tobin- an Irish female orphan immigrant in 1850

Stephen Tobin's daughter Katherine Tobin- marriage to Adolph Poulsen

Sons of Stephen Tobin and Mary Driscoll

Daughters of Stephen Tobin and Mary Driscoll

Irish Roots of Tobins, Driscolls, O'Briens, and Whites